Douglas Reed (1895–1976) was a British journalist, playwright, novelist and author of a number of books of political analysis. His book Insanity Fair (1938) was influential in publicizing the state of Europe and the megalomania of Adolf Hitler before the Second World War. Beginning in the 1940s, and for the rest of his life, Reed became convinced that there existed a "hidden hand" governing World Affairs, and that this hidden hand was Jewish, though it involved some non-Jewish characters. Reed believed in a long-term Zionist conspiracy to impose a world government on an enslaved humanity.
He was also staunchly anti-Communist, believed that there existed a Communist-Zionist-Supercapitalist nexus, and argued that National Socialism was a "stooge or stalking horse" meant to further the aims of the Communist Empire and the Zionist ambition, reasoning that "for great successes, which they could not otherwise achieve, Soviet Communism and Political Zionism needed an apparent antithesis, as a heavyweight champion needs a sparring partner."
Thus, when he died, The Times described him in an obituary as a "virulent anti-Semite", though Reed himself claimed that he drew a distinction between opposition to Zionism and anti-Semitism, and was not against the Jewish Race, but rather, was against the Jewish Religion, which he believed was a master race ideology. Reed is best known today for his text The Controversy of Zion, a posthumously published polemic in the tradition of Barruel's Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism, in which he argued that there existed a destructive master conspiracy, represented in his time by Communism and Zionism, that aimed for world control. He said in The Controversy of Zion:
In The Controversy of Zion, he attacked Judaism as a declaration of war against humanity, arguing that it was an imposition of a malicious Levitical priesthood in reaction to the Universalist tendencies present in Israel and in other cultures. He argued that this hostile Levitical cult which became Judaism believed that if its adherents didn't obey God, they would be persecuted, and if they did, they would destroy the Gentiles and rule the Earth. Reed argued that the Levites then became the Pharisees, and these characters were the Moloch-worshippers denounced by Biblical prophets like Jeremiah.
To Reed, Christianity was a direct challenge to Judaism, Jesus was "the opposite and adversary of all that which would make a literal Jew today or would have made a literal Pharisee then", and he argued that Jews responded to it by heightening their chauvinism with the Talmud and Kabbalah. Reed held that the Talmud was a racist, abominable work of manipulative men, who sought only power and the destruction of others.
To Reed, persecution, revenge, and destruction were an integral part of the Jewish identity. He then cited the text The History and Destiny of the Jews by the "zealous" Zionist macro-historian Dr. Joseph Kastein to the effect that Jews, by subverting nations, led to the destruction of the Babylonians, the Persians, the Egyptians, the Greeks and the Romans, each time by "stretching out open arms" to a conqueror. Pervading this analysis was an idea he developed in Disgrace Abounding that "anti-Gentilism" was the real obstacle to Jewish assimilation, and that anti-Semites were akin to victims in war who decided to retaliate.
In the rest of the book, he argued that while the Jews of the House of Joseph (which he associated with Sephardic Jews) were content to assimilate, the descendants of the Levites, centered in Russia (Khazarians from the "Talmudic Ghettos"), were not. In the chapters of his book entitled "The World Revolution" and "The Design", he argued that Cromwell's Glorious Revolution, the French Revolution, and the Bolshevik Revolution were part of a larger movement of World Revolution that was revealed by the exposure of Weishaupt's 18th Century Illuminati, that it probably traced back to predecessors, and that this organization went underground and became the mainspring for subsequent revolutions.
After this, in a chapter entitled "The Warnings of Disraeli", Reed argued that while evidence was inconclusive to show that Jews were the hidden hand behind the French Revolution and the 18th century Illuminati, statements made by British prime minister Benjamin Disraeli proved that these Jews from the Russian "Talmudic ghettos" gained control of Weishaupt's Illuminist world revolution conspiracy networks. To Reed, the most important statement from Disraeli was:
Reed also ascribed significance to Disraeli's assertion that:
In this chapter, Reed also devoted considerable attention to Mikhail Bakunin, the prominent anarcho-syndicalist and rival of Karl Marx who assailed Jewish control of the World Revolution in his Polemique Contre les Juifs.
Subsequently he argued that these characters put a stop to the Jewish emancipation that threatened their authority, founded Bolshevism, and hijacked world Jewry into their Zionist ideology and garrison state, aiming for total world power. He spent considerable space in his text examining the origins of Zionism, and gave a great deal of attention to Chaim Weizmann's autobiography Trial and Error (1949), which he claimed was one of the best sources showing the common origins of Communism and Zionism.
Reed also, in a chapter of his book entitled "The Heresy of Dr. Herzl", discussed how Zionists threatened European leaders with revolutionary turmoil if they did not acquiesce to their demands, and postulated a "Jewish International" consisting of various European and American Jewish financiers affiliated with Kuhn, Loeb, & Co. as subsidizing Zionist and Communist political ambitions.
He argued that the common argument that the Protocols of Zion was a forgery was misdirection, and, echoing the position of Nesta Webster, he stated that the program within that text bore much more resemblance to the 18th Century Illuminati's program of World Revolution than it did to Maurice Joly's text Dialogues aux Enfers entre Machiavelli et Montesquieu.
He also believed that the political program contained within the Protocols was shown to be real by the statements of Disraeli and Bakunin concerning Jewish leadership of the World Revolution, and that this program was apparent in the Bolshevik Revolution. He stated, in a chapter entitled The "Protocols":
Reed argued that 20th Century political events showed that politicians ceased to reflect the popular will, and instead were puppets of their "advisors", who he argued served not their countries, but Communism, Zionism, and the World Government ambition. Reed argued that Woodrow Wilson was the puppet of Col. Edward Mandell House, and spent some time reviewing House's text Philip Dru: Administrator, which contained the blueprint of the Wilson (and FDR) political program. He then argued that Harry Hopkins filled this role during the Roosevelt administration, and that underlying much of the Roosevelt political program was a devotion to the worldwide triumph of Communism, no matter what the costs.
Particular focus was given, in a chapter entitled The Revolution Extends, to a controversial text entitled From Major Jordan's Diaries, which claimed that Hopkins forced U.S. soldiers to transfer American nuclear capabilities to the Soviets during World War II. He believed that throughout this, Bernard Baruch was even more powerful, that he was the de-facto dictator of the United States.
He then argued that Harry Truman was completely controlled by Zionist interests, and that Baruch was the puppeteer behind President Eisenhower. Reed argued that Chaim Weizmann carried out this role in Great Britain, noting, in a chapter of his text entitled "The Decisive Battle" that Weizmann lobbied Prime Minister Herbert Asquith and Army Chief Sir William Robertson to divert soldiers from the Western Front to conquer Palestine, and that when the British leaders demurred, Weizmann used money and control of the press to install Lloyd George and Sir Henry Wilson in their place. He used this as a basis for his argument that Zionists achieved control of the British political scene during World War I.
In the chapters of The Controversy of Zion entitled "The World Revolution Again" and "The Talmudic Vengeance", he put forth the argument that the Bolshevik Revolution was an international Jewish conspiracy, but that this fact had been intentionally obfuscated. He stated:
To substantiate this argument, Reed cited various statements from Winston Churchill which presented Bolshevism as an international Jewish conspiracy, the unabridged British White Paper on Bolshevism, Russia No. 1, which presented it as a movement despised by Russians and carried out by Jews, stating "Bolshevism is organized and worked by Jews, who have no nationality and whose one object is to destroy for their own ends the existing order of things", the Jewish Chronicle, which stated in 1933 that one-third of the Jews in Russia had become officials, and other sources; but mostly he focused on the reportage of Robert Wilton and the Sokolov investigation.
Reed noted that Wilton, in the French edition of The Last Days of the Romanovs, reprinted the official Bolshevik lists, which presented the proportion of Jews to gentiles in the Bolshevik leadership as much higher than was later claimed, namely, that out of the 556 important functionaries of the Bolshevik State there were in 1918-1919: 17 Russians, 2 Ukrainians, 11 Armenians, 35 Lets, 15 Germans, 1 Hungarian, 10 Georgians, 2 Poles, 2 Finns, 1 Karaim, and 457 Jews.
He then devoted considerable time to summarizing Wilton's account of the murder of the Romanovs, noting that the murderers left behind an adaptation of the Jewish poet Heinrich Heine's lines on the fate of Belshazzar, King of the Chaldeans who, according to the Old Testament Book of Daniel, was murdered as God's punishment for an affront offered to Judah.
Reed cited the Official History of the Times to the effect that Wilton was deemed an extremely reliable reporter, but that he began to be shunned as soon as Zionist circles developed a distaste for his dispatches from Russia. He then argued that the situation in Russia was intentionally falsified by the Zionist controlled press, who Reed believed was not only minimizing the Jewish influence in Bolshevism, but also whitewashing Bolshevik atrocities. He compared this account of Wilton's experiences to his own experiences after he began presenting Zionism as a subversive movement.
Summarizing the situation, Reed stated:
Reed believed that the Zionist ambition was best defined by Deuteronomy 7:1-3 - "When the Lord thy God shall bring thee into the land whither thou goest to possess it, and shall cast out many nations before thee ... seven nations greater and mightier than thou; and when the Lord thy God shall deliver them up before thee, and thou shalt smite them; then thou shalt utterly destroy them; thou shalt make no covenant with them, nor show mercy unto them." He spent much of his book discussing the influence of Zionism in Britain and the United States, but, also devoted some time to the Dier Yassin massacre and Zionist terrorism, suggested that Zionism would eventually overtake the middle east, and took note of Communist-Zionist collaboration up to 1956.
Reed believed that World Wars I and II followed the line put forth in the Protocols, that "wars, so far as possible, should not result in territorial gains", and that the only victors in these wars were Zionism, Communism, and the World Government ambition. He took note of the Zionist leader Max Nordeau's exact prediction of the outcome of World War I in 1903:
and then, throughout his text, argued that Zionism was the hidden hand behind World Wars I and II, each time moving the world closer to World Government (in a chapter of The Controversy of Zion entitled "The World Instrument", he discussed Bernard Baruch's postwar proposal for a World Government with atomic powers, as a premonition of what to expect after another World War). He believed that Zionism will eventually lead to World War III, after which a World Government will be imposed.
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At the age of 13, Reed began working as an office boy, and at 19 a bank clerk. At the outbreak of the First World War he enlisted in the British Army. He transferred to the Royal Flying Corps, gaining a single kill in aerial combat and severely burning his face in a flying accident. (Insanity Fair, 1938) Around 1921 he began working as a telephonist and clerk for The Times. At the age of 30, he became a sub-editor. In 1927 he became assistant correspondent in Berlin, later transferring to Vienna as chief central European correspondent. He went on to report from various European centres including Warsaw, Moscow, Prague, Athens, Sofia, Bucharest and Budapest.
Reed resigned his job in protest against the appeasement of Hitler after the Munich Agreement of 1938. In Somewhere South of Suez: A Further Survey of the Grand Design of the Twentieth Century (1949), Reed wrote that his resignation came in response to press censorship which prevented him from fully reporting "the facts about Hitler and National Socialism." He believed that by becoming a "journalist without a newspaper," he would be free to write as he chose. Reed spent the duration of the Second World War in England; in 1948, he moved to Durban, South Africa.
Reed was vociferously anti-Nazi. His text The Burning of the Reichstag (1934), stemming from his experiences as witness to the fire and The Times special correspondent at the trial, was one of the first to suggest that Hitler was behind the Reichstag fire, and used it as a false flag operation to consolidate power. In Britain, he was one of the greatest opponents of appeasement, believing that the Hitler program was one of destructive expansion. His book Insanity Fair was the first to predict the Anchluss, and won him instant world fame.
For Reed, Hitler was an 'epileptic mongrel', a 'professional perjuror', 'the greatest traitor and renegade that Germany ever had' and a 'liar who believes in nothing'. Reed initially feared Nazism because he believed that Hitler's actions meant war, and that the Nazis would unleash a destructive fury over Europe, but as he explored the "Jewish Question" in world affairs, he began to believe that it was ultimately controlled by the Communist-Zionist "hidden hand”.
In opposition to Hitler, he promoted Otto Strasser, writing two biographies of him based on interviews - Nemisis? The Story of Otto Strasser (1940), and The Prisoner of Ottowa (1953). For Reed, Strasser was a "Conservative Revolutionary", a Christian National Socialist who opposed Hitler's belief in Nordic racial superiority by arguing that European people were a mixture of four or five races, and they should develop into a federation of equal nations and not one subject to German domination.
Reed believed that Strasser represented a legitimate movement of National revival, as opposed to Hitler, who he believed to be a destructive maniac and (beginning with his post-war texts) a front for conspiratorial Jewish interests. His unique interpretation of Hitler's ulterior motives is apparent in his 1953 text The Prisoner of Ottowa, in which he devoted particular attention to Hitler's stint as the go between from the soldiers in the barracks and the mostly Jewish Communist leaders who took over Munich in 1919. In addition to his two biographies of Strasser, Reed also translated and introduced Otto Strasser's book History in My Time (1940).
Although very much a conservative, Reed eventually came to respect another socialist thinker, the anarcho-syndicalist Mikhail Bakunin. He stated in a chapter of The Controversy of Zion entitled "The Warnings of Disraeli":
He furthermore stated:
After the publication of Insanity Fair and coinciding with his texts on the Strasser brothers, Reed developed increasing antipathy to the Jewish people, viewing them to be racial supremacists, and in his subsequent anti-Nazi writings argued that Jews were mirror images of Nazis in their social organization. In his 1939 book, Disgrace Abounding, Reed declared, in a chapter entitled "How Odd of God", that anti-gentilism (not anti-Semitism) prevents assimiliation of Jews, that "this keeps them welded together as alien communities in foreign lands, communities ultimately hostile to the Gentile.".
In his 1941 book, A Prophet At Home, he argued that "The anti-Jewish teaching of National Socialism was but the direct inversion of the anti-Gentile teaching of the Hebrew religion, and this statement of the case cannot be refuted; it never is refuted, but is always ignored." The last book exploring these themes while still focusing on National Socialism was Lest We Regret (1943), which suggested that Jewish politics had a subversive effect on Great Britain, suggested that the Jewish community was inflating the effect to which Hitler's policies endangered them for propaganda purposes, and stated that the statements of Zionists concerning their political ambitions were "indistinguishable from Hitlerist speeches, save in the substitution of 'Jewish' for 'German'", and suggested that Zionists would eventually take over the entire Middle East. He also discussed an incident he first reported in A Prophet At Home, where the Rabbi of Prague proclaimed in 1939 that "Hitler is the Jewish Messiah, because he will cause all those countries of the world to be opened to the Jews, which are closed to them now."
After WWII, Reed settled in South Africa, and became increasingly alienated from mainstream political discourse. His work then went beyond National Socialism to what he perceived to be the greater problem of Communism, and the influence of the Zionist movement. He started to believe that World War II only benefited the forces of Communism and Zionism, and he began to see Zionism as a subversive movement. Reed flirted with conspiratorial anti-Zionism in From Smoke to Smother (1948), and the nucleus of the ideas that permeated The Controversy of Zion presented themselves in his 1949 text, Somewhere South of Suez, which, in addition to it's conspiratorial arguments, explored the thesis of the Khazarian origins of Ashkenazi Jewry, and included the observation that:
The text that completely alienated Reed from mainstream discourse was Far and Wide (1951). The first part of the text, "The American Scene", was an autobiographical account of his travels in the United States, combining observations on American culture and history in light of his experiences in Europe. Included in this section is the speculation that the World Revolutionary conspiracy that he chronicled in his later works was involved in the assassination of Lincoln, in order to prevent reconciliation, and a comparison between the conditions imposed on the South after the Civil War to the conditions imposed on the Eastern European countries by the Soviet Union after World War II.
The second part of his text, "Behind the Scene", was the one which brought him the most trouble. In that section, he declared that America was held hostage by servitude to Communism and Zionism. In a chapter of that section entitled "Zionism Paramount", he explored Zionism's role in the world wars. He then began to question much of the Holocaust, arguing that the number of Jews killed had been inflated for propaganda purposes, citing various encyclopedias and almanacs, and stating "no proof can be given that six million Jews 'perished'; proof can be adduced that so many could not have perished." Reed believed that as long as Zionism remained in power, we would never have a clear picture of these events. He then argued that Zionists held immense propaganda power in the United States, and portrayed the Anti-Defamation League as a sort of secret police, claiming that it kept black lists and worked to destroy it's political opponents.
In a chapter entitled "Communism Penetrant", Reed first discussed at length the case of Whittaker Chambers vs. Alger Hiss, and the associated controversy concerning Communist infiltration in the United States. He then argued that Franklin Delano Roosevelt consciously worked to subvert Constitutional safeguards, helped further the aims of World Communism, and ultimately served higher circles. He asked, "What real purpose did Mr. Roosevelt promote through the way he used his imperial powers?", and then noted:
He subsequently cited Admiral William D. Leahy's text I was There (1950) to argue that "Mr. Roosevelt's grand design was for a large apportionment of the globe between the Communist Empire and the United States, at the expense of the British Commonwealth and French Empire. Support of Communism in China, too, was primarily intended to prevent a British revival there and in the planning of the Pacific campaign everything was done to exclude the British and make China and Japan into a Soviet-American sphere of influence."
He then argued that Roosevelt was a puppet of Harry Hopkins and higher circles, and that Hopkins consciously subverted Western interests in favor of Communism.
After writing Far and Wide, Douglas Reed spent three years in the New York Central Library researching the material for his text The Controversy of Zion. He finished the text in 1956, but it was considered to be too controversial for publication. The small right-wing South African publisher Dolphin Press Ltd., published the book in 1978, after Reed's death. Reed stated in the last chapter of that text, "The Climacteric":
Richard Thurlow attacked Reed as an "anti-Nazi anti-Semite" in an eponymous article in the Jewish journal Patterns of Prejudice. He noted that Reed believed that Nazism was a Communist and Zionist front, but ignored his arguments, merely stating that "for Reed the actions of organized Jewry were about as repugnant as those of Hitler. Therefore he refused to believe that Hitler could be a real antisemite, because two such evil forces could not be opposed to each other." Thurlow chastised Reed for ascribing legitimacy to the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, and arguing that the political program contained within that text was being implemented.
Thurlow also attacked Reed's belief that Zionists exaggerated the suffering of Jews under Hitler for propaganda purposes as bordering on Holocaust denial. Thurlow believed that the conspiratorial view of history that Reed put forth in The Controversy of Zion, which presented Jews as destructive, supremacist subversives, had genocidal implications, stating that it "was only [Reed's] Christianity, and his strong ethical sense, which prevented him from seeing the ultimate logic of his beliefs.”.
Reed himself believed that the Jewish people as a whole are essentially held captive by their own leaders who influence them to act as a destructive force in the world. He thought that by shining a light on the destructive nature of Communism and Zionism, he would prevent further misery. In the epilogue to The Controversy of Zion, he stated:
Reed was an extremely close friend of Ivor Benson, a conspiratorial anti-Communist who was the information advisor for Ian Smith's Rhodesian Front. Like Benson, he believed that Rhodesia was preserving old European civilization against the forces of Communism. He argued this position in his texts The Battle for Rhodesia (1966), The Siege of South Africa (1975), and The Grand Design of the 20th Century (1976).
- The Burning of the Reichstag, Gollancz, 1934.
- Insanity Fair: A European Cavalcade (autobiography), Random House, 1938 (published in England as Insanity Fair, J. Cape, 1938).
- Disgrace Abounding, J. Cape, 1939.
- Fire and Bomb: A comparison between the burning of the Reichstag and the bomb explosion at Munich, J. Cape, 1940.
- Nemesis? The Story of Otto Strasser, Houghton, 1940 (published in England as The Story of Otto Strasser and the Black Front, J. Cape, 1940).
- A Prophet at Home, J. Cape, 1941.
- History in My Time by Otto Strasser (translated from the German by Douglas Reed), J. Cape, 1941.
- All Our Tomorrows, J. Cape, 1942.
- Lest We Regret, J. Cape, 1943.
- From Smoke to Smother (1938-1948): A Sequel to Insanity Fair, J. Cape, 1948.
- Somewhere South of Suez: A further survey of the grand design of the twentieth century, Devin-Adair, 1951.
- Far and Wide, J. Cape, 1951.
- The Prisoner of Ottawa: Otto Strasser, J. Cape, 1953.
- The Battle for Rhodesia, Haum, 1966, Devin-Adair, 1967, reprinted as Insanity Fair '67, Gibbs, 1967.
- The Siege of Southern Africa, Macmillan South Africa, 1974.
- Behind the Scene (Part 2 of Far and Wide), Dolphin Press, 1975; Noontide Press, 1976.
- The Grand Design of the 20th Century, Dolphin Press, 1977.
- The Controversy of Zion, Veritas, 1985. * Download 2004 Edition as: PDF
- The Next Horizon: Or, Yeomans' Progress, J. Cape, 1945, published in the United States as Yeoman's Progress, Bobbs-merrill, 1946.
- Galanty Show, J. Cape, 1947.
- Reasons of Health, J. Cape, 1949.
- Rule of Three, J. Cape, 1950.
Author of Downfall (three-act play), J. Cape, 1942, Appleton, 1943.
- Douglas Reed.co.uk Comprehensive compilation of his works
- Somewhere South of Suez, Devin-Adair, U.S.A., (1951), pp. 9-11
- Ibid, p. 9
- a b Ibid, p. 179
- Michael Billig, Methodology and Scholarship in Understanding Ideological Explanation, in Clive Seale (ed), Social Research Methods: A Reader , accessed 27 January 2008.
- The Controversy of Zion. Cranbrook, W.A.: Veritas Publishing, 2004. p. 1, 2
- Ibid, p. 61
- Disraeli, Benjamin. Lord George Bentinck: A Political Biography. Colburn & Co., London, 1852. p. 497
- Hansard, Thomas C. Hansard's Parliamentary Debates: Third Series, Vol. CXLIII. Published by Cornelius Buck, London, 1856. p. 773
- Bakunin also believed that Marx was creating a false liberation ideology at the behest of the influential Rothschild banking dynasty, that Marx had "one foot in the bank, the other in the Socialist movement" - Bakunin, Mikhail. 1871, Personliche Beziehungen zu Marx. In: Gesammelte Werke. Band 3. Berlin 1924. P. 204-216. Cf. Landovskiĭ, Iosif Maksimovich, and George Knupffer, Red Symphony. Plain-Speaker Pub. Co., London, 1968.
- The Bolshevik leader Leon Trotsky corroborated the role of the Illuminati, which he studied when in the Odessa prisons. In his book My Life: The Rise and Fall of a Dictator (Thornton Butterworth Limited, London 1930), pp. 106-108, he wrote: "It was during that period that I became interested in freemasonry. ... In the eighteenth century freemasonry became expressive of a militant policy of enlightenment, as in the case of the Illuminati, who were the forerunners of the revolution; on its left it culminated in the Carbonari. Freemasons counted among their members both Louis XVI and the Dr. Guillotin who invented the guillotine. In southern Germany freemasonry assumed an openly revolutionary character, whereas at the court of Catherine the Great it was a masquerade reflecting the aristocratic and bureaucratic hierarchy. A freemason Novikov was exiled to Siberia by a freemason Empress. ... I discontinued my work on freemasonry to take up the study of Marxian economics. ... The work on freemasonry acted as a sort of test for these hypotheses. ... I think this influenced the whole course of my intellectual development."
- The Jewish Communal Register of New York City stated the following about Jacob Schiff, head of Kuhn, Loeb, & Co.: "Mr. Schiff has always used his wealth and his influence in the best interests of his people. He financed the enemies of autocratic Russia and used his financial influence to keep Russia from the money market of the United States." (Jewish Communal Register of New York City, 1917-1918, Second Edition, Kehillah, New York, (1919), p. 1019). Henry Wickham Steed, the chief editor of The Times during the period, noted that this aid went beyond the Kerensky regime, stating that "the prime movers [of the Bolshevik revolution] were Jacob Schiff, Warburg, and other international financiers, who wished above all to bolster up the Jewish Bolshevists in order to secure a field for German and Jewish exploitation of Russia." (Steed, Henry Wickham. Through thirty years, 1892-1922: a personal narrative, Volume 2. Doubleday, Page & Company, 1924. p. 302). The Hoover Institution scholar, Antony Sutton, who specialized in the role of Western Technological and financial transfers in building up the Soviet State, while denying the Jewish role in the Bolshevik revolution in other works, still noted that the role of Schiff's firm of Kuhn, Loeb, & Co. in supporting the Bolsheviks continued beyond the revolution in his Hoover Institution study on Western aid to the Soviets, writing "there is a report in the State Department files that names Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (the long established and important financial house in New York) as the financier of the First Five Year Plan. See U. S. State Dept. Decimal File, 811.51/3711 and 861.50 FIVE YEAR PLAN/236." (Sutton, Antony. Western Technology and Soviet Economic Development, Vol. II. Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, Stanford University, 1973. p. 340n). In the book Geneva versus Peace (Sheed & Ward, New York, 1937), Comte de Saint-Aulaire, French Ambassador to Great Britain in the 1920s, discussed his meetings with Kuhn, Loeb, & Co. financiers. They had discussions regarding why they [the Kuhn, Loeb, & Co. bankers] financed the Bolshevik Revolution. One of them said (p. 80): "You say that Marxism is the very antithesis of capitalism, which is equally sacred to us. It is precisely for this reason that they are direct opposites to one another, that they put into our hands the two poles of this planet and allow us to be its axis. These two contraries, like Bolshevism and ourselves, find their identity in the International. These opposites, which are at the antipodes to one another in society and in their doctrines meet again in the identity of their purpose and end, the remaking of the world from above by the control of riches, and from below by revolution."; and: "Our mission consists in promulgating the new law and in creating a God, that is to say in purifying the idea of God and realizing it, when the time shall come. We shall purify the idea by identifying it with the nation of Israel, which has become its own Messiah. the advent of it will be facilitated by the final triumph of Israel, which has become it's own Messiah." This same financier also said (pp. 83-84): "... our essential dynamism makes use of the forces of destruction and forces of creation, but uses the first to nourish the second. ... Our organization for revolution is evidenced by destructive Bolshevism and for construction by by the League of Nations which is also our work. Bolshevism is the accelerator and the League is the brake on the mechanism of which we supply both the motive force and the guiding power. What is the end? It is already determined by our mission. It is formed of elements scattered throughout the whole world, but cast in the flame of our faith in ourselves. We are a League of Nations which contains the elements of all others. ...Israel is the microcosm and the germ of the City of the future." Cf. Landovskiĭ, Iosif Maksimovich, and George Knupffer, Op. Cit.
- The Austrailian researcher Peter Myers created an in depth critique and deconstruction of the work of Norman Cohn, who presented the most recent and comprehensive argument that the Protocols are illegitimate. Myers noted the most common criticism, that the protocols are a blanket plagiarism, is incorrect: "Cohn's arithmetic is incorrect. The word-count of the parallel-passages from the Protocols, as listed by Bernstein (at bernstein.zip), is 4,361, while the word-count of the Protocols is 26, 496. That is, the parallel passages comprise 16.45% of the Protocols; this is substantial, but still less than one sixth of the total. What Cohn especially omits to mention, is the Protocols' extensive coverage of the world finance system." Thus, 5/6 of the Protocols are totally original with the text itself. Prior to this, Leslie Fry had created an in depth investigation of the Protocols entitled Waters Flowing Eastward (1931), which noted Maurice Joly's affiliation with Jewish and Masonic societies, noted that much of Joly's text contains parallel passages from a book entitled Machiavelli, Montesquieu & Rousseau by a Jewish mason named Jacob Venedy, noted that both individuals were affiliated with Karl Marx, Giuseppe Mazzini, and Adolphe Crémieux, and established that Maurice Joly plagiarized the Protocols (not vice-versa).
- The Controversy of Zion, p. 210
- Ibid, p. 272, 273
- Russia, No.1 (1919); a Collection of Reports on Bolshevism in Russia (British Government's Stationery Office, 1919), p. 6 - extract from Report No. 6, from the Netherlands Minister at Petrograd on the 6th of September, 1918, forwarded by Sir M. Findlay, at Christiania, to Mr. Balfour.
- Reed's colleague, Ivor Benson, wrote up an overview of the Sokolov Investigation entitled "Russia 1917-1918: A key to the riddle of an age of conflict" (The Journal of Historical Review, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 323-352).
- See the Romanov Memorial virtual museum for pictures of the Heine poem written on the wall of the Ipatiev House.
- The Controversy of Zion, pp. 270-271
- See Genesis 15:18, which states "In the same day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates." See also Theodor Herzl's statement that the ideal Zionist state stretched “from the Brook of Egypt to the Euphrates.” - Herzl, Theodor, English translation by H. Zohn, R. Patai, Editor, The Complete Diaries of Theodor Herzl, Volume 2, Herzl Press, New York, (1960), p. 711
- cited in Rosenthal, Litman. "A Prophet Speaks" (American Jewish News, New York, Vol. 4, No. 2, September 19, 1919), p. 464
- Baruch Plan
- Nemesis? The Story of Otto Strasser (London 1940), pp. 73, 76, 96 and 97
- Ibid, pp. 89-90
- The Controversy of Zion, pp. 169-170
- Ibid, p. 169
- Disgrace Abounding (1939), pp. 228-262
- A Prophet At Home (1941), p. 102
- Lest We Regret (J. Cape, 1943), p. 272
- Ibid, p. 280
- Somewhere South of Suez, p. 9
- Several prominent Jews and Jewish organizations had fabricated atrocity stories involving a "holocaust" of "six million Jews" long before World War II. See Rabbi Stephen Wise (New York Times, June 11, 1900) - "There are 6,000,000 living, bleeding, suffering arguments in favor of Zionism. They come not to beg, but ask for that which is higher than all material things. They seek to have satisfied the unquenchable thirst after the ideal. They ask to become once again the messengers of right, justice, and humanity." See also Martin H. Glynn, "The Crucifixion of the Jews Must Stop!" (The American Hebrew, October 31, 1919, p. 552), which purports that during World War I, because of because of epidemics, starvation, and a "holocaust", "six million" Jews succumbed.. Detailed information concerning atrocity propaganda put out by Jewish organizations during Wold War I in order to fuel fund raising campaigns can be found in Heddesheimer, Don. The First Holocaust: Jewish Fund Raising Campaigns with Holocaust Claims During and After World War I. Theses & Dissertations Press (March 2005). Cf. Sanning, Walter N. The Dissolution of Eastern European Jewry. Torrance, Calif., Institute for Historical Review, 1983., which, citing census records, various Jewish sources dealing with demographic data, and other sources, establishes that there were many fewer Jews in Europe in 1939, many more in Europe in 1945 than previous historians have maintained, and that during WWII many Jews were absorbed into the Soviet Union, later becoming a source of emigration into Israel and the Americas.
- Far and Wide. London: J. Cape, 1951. p 308
- Ibid., pp. 345-346
- Ibid., p. 350
- The Controversy of Zion, p. 492
- Thurlow, Richard. "Anti-Nazi Antisemite: The Case of Douglas Reed", Patterns of Prejudice (London, vol. 18, no. 1, (January 1984)), pp. 23–34.
- Corroboration for Reed's argument comes from a February 7, 1948 letter from Heinrich Bruning (chancellor of Germany from 1930-1932) to David Longwell, stating, "I did not and do not even today, for understandable reasons, wish to reveal that from October 1928 the two largest regular contributors to the Nazi Party were the general managers of two of the largest Berlin banks, both of Jewish faith, and one of them the leader of Zionism in Germany." (Longwell collection, Butler Library, Columbia University, New York City)
- The Controversy of Zion, pp. 569, 570-571
- "Douglas Reed, 1895-1976". Contemporary Authors Online. Thomson Gale, 2007. 2007.Retrieved 2007-08-28.
- Reed, Douglas. The Controversy of Zion. Cranbrook, W.A.: Veritas Publishing, 2004
- Thurlow, Richard. "Anti-Nazi Antisemite: The Case of Douglas Reed", in Patterns of Prejudice (London, vol. 18, no. 1, (January 1984)), pp. 23–34.
- "Douglas Reed" by Mark Weber in The Journal for Historical Review (November/December 2000; Volume 10 number 6, p. 33)
- "Douglas Reed and the Jews" by Knud Eriksen (Feb. 1998, translated from a Danish article in Dronten)
Jonathan was born in Kent in 1962. His mother suffered from severe mental illness and died when Bowden was 16 years old. An orator of great power, Jonathan was a regular speaker at various political events around the United Kingdom… view Jonathan Bowden…
American poet and critic, a major figure in the early modernist poetry movement. 1885 – 1972… view Ezra Pound…
Arnold Spencer Leese was a British fascist politician. He led his own fascist movement, the Imperial Fascist League, and was a prolific author and publisher of polemics both before and after the Second World War… view Arnold Leese…