The Weather Underground was a Jewish domestic terror group responsible for bombings of the United States Capitol, the Pentagon, and several police stations in New York, as well as the Greenwich Village town house explosion that killed three of its members. The stated goal of the Weather Underground was to co-opt White people from peaceful SDS demonstrations into becoming Communism revolutionaries fighting for Black Power through committing violent acts of extremist terrorism to overthrow the government of the United States.
Beginnings of the Weather Underground
Within SDS, the Weathermen grew out of a faction called the Revolutionary Youth Movement (RYM). At SDS' Chicago convention in June 1969, the society found itself split three ways and collapsed shortly after. The Weatherman group took its name and the name for their manifesto from a lyric of a Bob Dylan song Subterranean Homesick Blues, which was published in the June 18, 1969 edition of New Left Notes. What was left of SDS fell to the control of the Progressive Labour Party (PLP), the oldest Maoist group in the United States.
On May 21, 1970, the organization issued its “Declaration of a State of War” against America, which was written by Dohrn. In many ways, the Underground was structured like a typical cult organisation, lacking perhaps one or two key features. On September 13, 1970, the weathermen helped Timothy Leary escape from a prison in San Luis Obispo.
Weather Underground Communiqué
Few folks have heard of the Weather Underground's plan to twenty-five million capitalist Americans into Communist re-education/extermination camps or a stated intent to inflict mass infanticide upon millions of white American babies:
Larry Grathwohl (United States Army veteran and an FBI informant in the 1970s) became a member of the Weather Underground organization as an undercover operative for law enforcement agencies in Cincinnati. His role within the organization was to carry directives from the central committee to the operating units in the field…
Stated intent of inflicting infanticide upon millions of White American babies.
Internment of millions of capitalist Americans into Communist re-education camps.
Grathwohl exploits were documented in the 1976 book Bringing Down America, in which he exposed the inner workings of the Weather Underground and the personal activities of many of its members, including Bill Ayers and Bernardine Dohrn.
Weather Underground: Barrack Obama and the SDS
William (Bill Charles Ayers became involved in the New Left and the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). He rose to national prominence as an SDS leader in 1968 and 1969 as head of an SDS regional group, the “Jesse James Gang”. With the split of SDS in 1969, Ayers joined the Weatherman faction.
Both Bill Ayers and Bernardine Dohrn were early political patrons of Barack Obama, hosting a campaign event for the future president in 1995 when Obama ran for the state Senate in Illinois.
Right logo of Obama is sun rising over a section of the Weather Underground Left logo
Obama also served on the Board of the Woods Fund of Chicago with Weather Underground terrorist group co-founder Bill Ayers at the time this photo (pictured below) appeared of Ayers stomping the American flag in Chicago Magazine in 2001.
Doctor Ayers teaching curricula relies heavily on material that uses Mao Zedong, Josef Stalin, Vladimir Lenin, and Fidel Castro as authoritative sources. Obama’s childhood mentor was communist party propagandist Frank Marshall Davis.
For more information on Barack Obama and his attempted fall of Capitalism by bankrupting America with burden thus giving rising to a Socialist Communist State read: Barack Obama and the Strategy of Manufactured Crisis
Filming of the Weather Underground
After reading Prairie Fire: Political Statement from the Weather Underground in 1974, Marxist filmmaker Emile de Antonio determined to make a “new kind of didactic, revolutionary film”—a “film weapon.” He formed a collective with fellow filmmakers Mary Lampson and Haskell Wexler, and through a series of “cloak-and-dagger meetings,” the trio arranged to interview active members of the radical political group the Weather Underground. Living with the fugitive activists in a safe house for three days, the filmmakers interviewed them about their ideological opposition to the American government and their paths to the controversial Weather Underground. Wexler, the cinematographer, was forced to film the activists either from behind or through a scrim to conceal their visual identities. The film was made in 1975, following the group's involvement in bombing the Pentagon.
When the film became known to the FBI, de Antonio, Lampson, and Wexler were subpoenaed and ordered to turn over all of their negatives and tapes. The filmmakers argued that the subpoena violated their First Amendment rights, and represented prior restraint. After they were backed up by the ACLU and numerous Hollywood stars including Harry Belafonte, Warren Beatty, Jeff Bridges, and Mel Brooks, the subpoena was dropped. The completed film Underground was released in 1976. That same year, Folkways released the soundtrack to the film, which includes the entire audio of the documentary. Liner notes offer a detailed account of the filming process, written by Peter Biskind and Marc N. Weiss.
List of known Weather Underground Activities
- June 18–22 — Students for a Democratic Society, SDS National Convention held in Chicago, Illinois. Publication of “Weatherman” founding statement. Members seize control of SDS National Office.
- July — Members Bernardine Dohrn, Eleanor Raskin, Dianne Donghi, Peter Clapp, David Millstone and Diana Oughton travel to Cuba and meet representatives of the North Vietnamese and Cuban governments.
- August — Weatherman member Linda Sue Evans travels to North Vietnam. Weatherman activists meet in Cleveland, Ohio, in preparation for “Days of Rage” protests scheduled for October 1969 in Chicago.
- September 3 — Female members participate in a “jailbreak” at South Hills High School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where they run through the school shouting anti-war slogans and distributing literature promoting the “National Action.” The term “Pittsburgh 26” refers to the 26 women arrested in connection with this incident.
- September 23 — Katherine Ann Power and Susan Edith Saxe became involved in a plot to arm the Black Panthers as a response to United States involvement in the Vietnam War. Bond introduced them to former convicts William Gilday and Robert Valeri and together the group plotted to rob the State Street Bank & Trust. On September 20, 1970, the group robbed a National Guard armoury in Newburyport, Massachusetts and took 400 rounds of ammunition. They also stole weapons and set fire to the facility, causing about $125,000 in damage. The group robbed a bank in Brighton, Massachusetts, carrying handguns, a shotgun and a submachine gun. The first police officer on the scene, Boston police officer Walter Schroeder, was shot in the back by Gilday when he attempted to stop the robbery. He subsequently died from his wounds. The group escaped with $26,000 in cash, which they planned to use to finance an overthrow of the federal government. Power was behind the wheel of one of the two getaway vehicles.
- September 24 — A group of members confronted Chicago Police during a demonstration supporting the “National Action” and protesting the commencement of the Chicago Eight trial stemming from the 1968 Democratic National Convention.
- October 6 — The Haymarket Police Statue in Chicago was bombed; Weathermen later claimed credit for the bombing in their book, “Prairie Fire.”
- October 8–11 — The “Days of Rage” riots occurred in Chicago, damaging a large amount of property. 287 Weatherman members were arrested; some became fugitives when they failed to appear for trial.
- November 8 — Sniper attack on Cambridge Police Station. Two shots were fired. Two Weathermen, James Kilpatrick and James Reaves, were indicted and subsequently released when a witness recanted his testimony.
- November–December — Karen Ashley and Phoebe Hirsch were among the few Weatherman members to join the first contingent of the Venceremos Brigade (VB) that departs for Cuba to harvest sugar cane.
- December 6 — Bombing of several Chicago police cars parked in a precinct parking lot at 3600 North Halsted Street, Chicago. The WUO claims responsibility in “Prairie Fire,” stating it was a protest of the fatal police shooting of Illinois Black Panther Party leaders Fred Hampton and Mark Clark on December 4, 1969.
- December 27–30 — Weathermen held a “War Council” in Flint, Michigan, where plans were finalised to change into an underground organisation that would commit strategic acts of sabotage against the government. Thereafter, they were called “Weather Underground Organization” (WUO).
- January — Silas and Judith Bissell placed a homemade bomb under the steps of the ROTC building. The bomb was made from an electric blasting cap, an alarm clock, a battery and a plastic bag filled with petrol and explosives.
- February — The WUO closed the SDS National Office in Chicago, concluding the major campus-based organisation of the 1960s. The first contingent of the VB returned from Cuba and the second contingent departed. By mid-February, the bulk of the leading WUO members had gone underground.
- February 16 — A bomb was detonated at the Golden Gate Park branch of the San Francisco Police Department, killing one officer and injuring a number of other policemen. No organisation claimed credit. (See San Francisco Police Department Park Station bombing.)
- February 21 — The house of Judge Murtagh, who was presiding over the Panther 21 trial, is firebombed with three Molotov cocktails by a WUO cell in New York City.
- March — Warrants are issued for several WUO members, who become federal fugitives when they fail to appear for trial in Chicago.
- March 6 — WUO members Theodore Gold, Diana Oughton, and Terry Robbins are killed in the Greenwich Village townhouse explosion, when a nail bomb they were constructing detonates. The bomb was intended to be planted at a non-commissioned officer's dance at Fort Dix, New Jersey.
- March 30 — Chicago police discover a WUO “bomb factory” on Chicago's north side.
- April 1 — Based on a tip, Chicago Police find 59 sticks of dynamite, ammunition, and nitro glycerine in an apartment traced to WUO members. The Discover of the WUO weapons cache ends WUO activity in this city.
- April 2 — A federal grand jury in Chicago returns a number of indictments charging WUO members with violation of federal anti-riot laws. Also, a number of additional federal warrants charging “unlawful flight to avoid prosecution” are returned in Chicago based on the failure of WUO members to appear for trial in local cases. (The Anti-riot Law charges were later dropped in January 1974.)
- April 15 — The FBI arrests WUO members Linda Sue Evans and Dianne Donghi in New York City with the help of WUO infiltrator, Larry Grathwohl.
- May 10 — The National Guard Association of the United States building in Washington, D.C. is bombed.
- May 21 — The WUO releases its “Declaration of a State of War” communiqué under Bernardine Dohrn's name.
- June 6 — In a letter, the WUO claims credit for the bombing of the San Francisco Hall of Justice, although no explosion has occurred. Months later, workmen locate an unexploded bomb.
- June 9 — The New York City Police headquarters is bombed by Jane Alpert and accomplices. Weathermen state this is in response to “police repression.” The bomb made with ten sticks of dynamite exploded in the NYC Police Headquarters. The explosion was preceded by a warning about six minutes before the detonation, and subsequently by a WUO claim of responsibility.
- July 23 — A federal grand jury in Detroit, Michigan, returns indictments against thirteen WUO members and former WUO members charging violations of various explosives and firearms laws. (These indictments were later dropped in October 1973.)
- July 25 — The United States Army base at The Presidio in San Francisco is bombed on the 11th anniversary of the Cuban Revolution. [NYT, 7/27/70] On the same day, a branch of the Bank of America is bombed in New York.
- July 28 — Bank of America HQ in NYC is bombed around 3:50 AM. WUO claims responsibility.
- September 15 — The WUO helps Dr. Timothy Leary escape from the California Men's Colony prison.
- October 6 — Second bombing of Chicago's Haymarket Police monument
- October 8 — Bombing of Marin County courthouse. WUO states this is in retaliation for the killings of Jonathan Jackson, William Christmas, and James McClain[note 1]
- October 10 — A Queens traffic-court building is bombed. WUO claims this is to express support for the New York prison riots. [NYT, 10/10/70, p. 12]
- October 11 — A Courthouse in Long Island City, NY is bombed. An estimated 8 to 10 sticks of dynamite are used. A warning was given around 10 min. prior to the 1:23 AM blast by the WUO.
- October 12 — Around October 12 eight bomb explosions occur, Five in Rochester, New York, Two in NYC, and One in Orlando FL. Despite warnings, three persons are injured, none seriously. The Weatherman never claimed responsibility for the bombings, nor have they ever been linked to them.
- October 14 — The Harvard Center for International Affairs is bombed by The Proud Eagle Tribe of Weather (later renamed the Women's Brigade of the Weather Underground). WUO claims this is to protest the war in Vietnam. [NYT, 10/14/70, p. 30] The bombing was in reaction to Angela Davis' arrest and was the first action undertaken by an all-women's unit of WUO.
- October — Bernardine Dohrn, Katherine Ann Power, and Susan Edith Saxe were put on the FBI's Ten Most Wanted List
- December — Fugitive WUO member Caroline Tanker, who fled the country for Cuba, is arrested by the FBI in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
- December 5 — Five Weatherman are captured for trying to bomb First National City Bank of NY and other buildings on the anniversary of the death of Fred Hampton. These individuals subsequently plead guilty.
- December 11 — Vivian Bogart and Patricia McLean from the WUO are arrested after throwing an incendiary bomb at the Royal National Bank in NYC around 1:30 AM.
- December 16 — Fugitive WUO member Judith Alice Clark is arrested on the Days of Rage indictments by the FBI in New York.
- March 1 — The United States Capitol is bombed. WUO states this is to protest the invasion of Laos. President Richard M. Nixon denounces the bombing as a “shocking act of violence that will outrage all Americans.” [NYT, 3/2/71]
- April — FBI agents discover what is dubbed “Pine Street Bomb Factory”, an abandoned apartment utilised by WUO in San Francisco, California.
- August 30 — Bombings of the Office of California Prisons in Sacramento and San Francisco, allegedly in retaliation for the killing of George Jackson. [LAT, 8/29/71]
- September 17 — The New York Department of Corrections in Albany, New York is bombed, as per WUO to protest the killing of 29 inmates at Attica State Penitentiary. [NYT, 9/18/71]
- October 15 — The bombing of William Bundy's office in the MIT research centre. [NYT, 10/16/71]
- Dec 2 — Fugitive WUO member Matthew Steen, suspected in the US Capitol bombing, is arrested in Seattle by the FBI for bank robbery but convicted of federal conspiracy and sentenced to ten years.
- May 19 — Bombing of The Pentagon, “in retaliation for the U.S. bombing raid in Hanoi.” The date was chosen for it being Ho Chi Minh's birthday. [NYT, 5/19/72]
- May 18 — The bombing of the 103rd Police Precinct in New York. WUO states this is in response to the killing of 10-year-old black youth Clifford Glover by police.
- September 19 – A WUO member is arrested by the FBI in New York. Released on bond, this member again submerges into the underground.
- September 28 — ITT headquarters buildings in New York City and Rome, Italy are bombed. WUO states this is in response to ITT's alleged role in the Chilean coup earlier that month.
- Around October 1973 the Government requested dropping charges against most of the WUO members. The requests cited a recent decision by the Supreme Court that barred electronic surveillance without a court order. This decision could hamper prosecution of the WUO cases. In addition, the government did not want to reveal foreign intelligence secrets that the court has ordered disclosed.
- March 6 — Bombing of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare offices in San Francisco. WUO states this is to protest alleged sterilisation of poor women. In the accompanying communiqué, the Women's Brigade argues for “the need for women to take control of daycare, health care, birth control and other aspects of women's daily lives.”
- May 31 — The Office of the California Attorney General is bombed. WUO states this is in response to the killing of six members of the Symbionese Liberation Army.
- June 17 — Gulf Oil's Pittsburgh headquarters is bombed. WUO states this is to protest the company's actions in Angola, Vietnam, and elsewhere.
- July — The WUO releases the book Prairie Fire, in which they indicate the need for a unified Communist Party. They encourage the creation of study groups to discuss their ideology, and continue to stress the need for violent acts. The book also admits WUO responsibility of several actions from previous years. The Prairie Fire Organising Committee (PFOC) arises from the teachings in this book and is organised by many former WUO members.
- September 11 — Bombing of Anaconda Corporation (part of the Rockefeller Corporation). WUO states this is in retribution for Anaconda's alleged involvement in the Chilean coup the previous year.
- January 29 — Bombing of the State Department; WUO states this is in response to escalation in Vietnam. (AP. “State Department Rattled by Blast,” The Daily Times-News, January 29, 1975, p. 1)
- January 23 — Offices of Dept. of Defence in Oakland are bombed. In a statement released to the press, Weather expressed solidarity with the Vietnamese still fighting against the Thieu regime in Vietnam.
- Spring — WUO publishes “Politics in Command,” which is its new political-military strategy. It furthers the line of building a legal, above-ground organisation and begins to minimise the armed struggle role.
- March — The WUO releases its first edition of a new magazine entitled Osawatomie.
- June 16 — Weathermen bomb a Banco de Ponce (a Puerto Rican bank) in New York, WUO states this is in solidarity with striking Puerto Rican cement workers.
- July — More than a thousand women attend the Socialist Feminist Conference at Antioch College in Yellow Springs, OH in which WUO supporters attempt to play a major role.
- July 11–13 — The Prairie Fire Organising Committee (PFOC) holds its first national convention, during which time they go through the formality of creating a new organisation.
- September — Bombing of the Kennecott Corporation; WUO states this is in retribution for Kennecott's alleged involvement in the Chilean coup two years prior.
- 1976-1981 the Weather Underground slowly disbands, many members turning themselves in after taking advantage of the Federal Government dropping most charges in 1973 (illegal wiretaps and intelligence sources & methods issues) and of President Jimmy Carter's amnesty for draft dodgers.
- February — The first issue of Prairie Fire Organising Committee's magazine, Breakthrough, is published.
- Spring — The John Brown Book Club compiles articles critical of the old WUO leadership and subsequent split in a pamphlet entitled: The Split of the Weather Underground Organisation: Struggling against White and Male Supremacy.
- November 1977 — Former WUO member Matthew Landy Steen appears on the lead segment of CBS 60 Minutes, the first and last ex-Weatherman to appear on national television, urging WUO members still underground to “re-emerge and engage change at the community level.” Mark Rudd surrendered within 60 days; the remainder of the Weather leadership resurfaced the following year.
- November — Five WUO members are arrested on conspiracy to bomb California State Senator, John Brigg's offices. It is later revealed that the Revolutionary Committee and PFOC had been infiltrated, and the arrests were the results of the infiltration. From this point on, some authors argue that the Weather Underground Organisation ceases to exist.
- July — Former WUO member, Cathy Wilkerson surfaces in New York City and is charged with possession of explosives arising from the 1970 townhouse explosion. She is sentenced to 3 years in prison.
- December 3 — Bernadine Dohrn and Bill Ayers turn themselves in. Charges against Ayers are dropped in 1973 (illegal wire taps & foreign intelligence sources and methods). Dohrn is placed on probation. It was discovered that the FBI had discussed a plan to kidnap her nephew, amongst other controversial schemes.
- October 20 — Brinks robbery in which WUO members Kathy Boudin, Sam Brown, Judy Clark and David Gilbert and the Black Liberation Army stole over $1.6 million from a Brinks armored car at the Nanuet Mall, near Nyack, New York on October 20, 1981. The robbers were stopped by police later that day and engaged them in a shootout, killing two police officers and one Brink's guard, as well as wounding several others.
- Silas Bissell a leader of the Weather Underground Organisation, who was once on the FBI's Ten Most Wanted list is arrested for bombing a ROTC building. His ex-wife, Judith Bissell served three years for the attempted bombing of CA State Senator John Briggs
Flint War Council
The Flint War Council (also known as the SDS National War Council) was a series of meetings of the Weather Underground Organization (WUO) and associates in Flint, Michigan, that took place from 27 to 31 December 1969. During these meetings, the decisions were made for the WUO to go underground, to “engage in guerilla warfare against the U.S. government,” and to abolish Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). During the War Council, several of the leading members of the WUO gave impassioned speeches designed, as Judy Siff later said, to “really psych [the group] up.” Some of these speeches would become very controversial.
Around 300 people attended the War Council. Among the groups represented, besides the WUO, were the Detroit White Panthers, the Bay Area Collective, and RYM II. According to the FBI, the following people “are known to have attended this convention”:
Karen Ashley, William Ayers, Kathie Boudin, Jeffrey Blum, Robert Burlingham, David Camp, Peter Clapp, Edith Crichton, Mona Cunningham, Marc Dinsmore, Brian Flanagan, Laura Foner, John Fuerst, Lynn Raye Garvin, David Gilbert, Theodore Gold, Joyce Greenways, Leonard Handlesman, Phoebe Hirsch, John Jacobs, Naomi Jaffe, Jeff Jones, Michael Junstesen, David Klafter, Nancy Kurshan, Karen Latimer, Jonathon Lerner, Connie Long (Ullman), Howard Machtinger, Jeffrey Melish, James Mellen, Raymond Moser, Russel Neufeld, Diana Oughton, Jed Proujansky, Eleanor Raskin, Natalee Rosenstein, Mark Ruddv, Marguerite Smith, Michael Speigel, Jane Spielman, Barry Stein, Malorie Tolles, Robert Tomaschavsky, Clayton Van Lydegraf, Mary Wozniak
Former members of the WUO have had similar reactions when looking back on the events at the War Council. Jeff Jones later called the speeches an example of “group psychosis,” and Mark Rudd described them as “madness.” Susan Stern called the speeches praising Manson, “The last putrid drop of American poison” in the WUO. Cathy Wilkerson said that, although some may have seen the events of the War Council as theatre, to her, the sentiments expressed were “deadly serious.” American sociologist Todd Gitlin described the speeches as “a public rite to exorcize the Weathermen's last doubts.”.
Other Weather Underground Terrorists include:
Weather Underground INC
Before and after the Weather Underground disbanded (because they were all put in prison bar two fugitives) other groups venerated their ambitions, slogans et al. Charles Manson became fixated on the idea of an imminent apocalyptic race war between America's black population and the larger white population.
Manson believed that black people in America would rise up and kill all whites except for Manson and his “Family”, but that they were not intelligent enough to survive on their own; they would need a white man to lead them, and so they would serve Manson as their “master”.
May 19th Communist Organisation
The May 19 Communist Organization was active from 1978 to 1985. M19CO (the M19CO name was derived from the birthdays of Ho Chi Minh and Malcolm X) was a combination of the Black Liberation Army and the Weather Underground. It also included members of the Black Panthers and the Republic of New Africa (RNA). In addition to the May 19th Communist Organization being made up of the Black Liberation Army, the group was formed because of infighting in the Weather Underground Organization. Following the split of the Weather Underground Organization into factions, the faction that favoured more extreme actions to achieve its objectives joined the Black Liberation Army, forming the May 19th Communist Organization. One of the founders, Laura Whitehorn, was also part of the Weather Underground Organisation's predecessor, the Students for a Democratic Society.
From 1982 to 1985 M19CO committed a series of bombings, including bombings of the National War College, the Washington Navy Yard Computing Center, the Israeli Aircraft Industries Building, New York City's South African consulate, the Washington Navy Yard Officers' Club, New York City's Patrolmen's Benevolent Association, and the United States Capitol Building. Three officers were killed during the Brinks Robbery, but no one was injured or killed in their bombings. Almost all the M19CO members (almost all detained by May 23, 1985, ) were convicted in a US Court of Law for these offences, but Elizabeth Ann Duke remains at large.
- In 1979 three members walked into the visitor’s centre at the Clinton Correctional Facility for Women near Clinton, took two guards hostage, and freed Assata Shakur, a member of the Black Liberation Army. Shakur was serving a sentence of life plus 26 to 33 years for the murder of a state trooper.
- Several months later they arranged for the escape of William Morales, a member of the Puerto Rican separatist group, the Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional Puertorriqueña (FALN), from Bellevue Hospital in New York City where he was recovering after a bomb he was building exploded in his hands.
- In 1981 Weather Underground members Kathy Boudin, Judith Alice Clark, and David Gilbert, together with several members of the Black Liberation Army, participated in the robbery of a Brinks armoured car at the Nanuet Mall, near Nyack, New York, during which a Brinks guard and two Nyack police officers were killed. Upon her arrest, Boudin was identified as a member of the May 19 Communist Organisation. The attack resulted in the theft of $1.6 million, intended to create an ethno-state for black Americans in the south, termed “New Afrika.”
- On January 28, 1983, M19CO bombed the federal building on Staten Island, N.Y.
- On April 25, 1983, the group was responsible for a bombing at the National War College at Fort McNair in Washington, D.C.
- On November 7, 1983, the group triggered a bomb explosion at the US Senate.
- On August 18, 1983, it bombed the Washington Navy Yard Computer Centre.
- On April 5, 1984, it bombed the Israeli Aircraft Industries Building.
- On April 20, 1984, M19CO committed a bombing at the Washington Navy Yard Officers Club.
- On November 3, 1984, two members of the M19CO, Susan Rosenberg and Timothy Blunk, were arrested at a mini-warehouse they had rented in Cherry Hill, New Jersey. Police recovered more than 100 blasting caps, nearly 200 sticks of dynamite, more than 100 cartridges of gel explosive, and 24 bags of blasting agent from the warehouse.
- On September 26, 1984, the South African consulate was bombed.
- M19CO's last bombing was on February 23, 1985, at the Policeman's Benevolent Association in New York City.
Marilyn Jean Buck was arrested in 1985 and was, before joining the May 19th Communist Organisation, the only white member of the Black Liberation Army, one of the two groups that formed the May 19th Communist Organisation. While the May 19th Communist Organisation was made up of individuals of several racial heritages, the Black Liberation Army was previously entirely made up of black Americans, save for Marilyn Jean Buck.