Judaism is an Abrahamic, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people. It has its roots as an organized religion in the Middle East during the Bronze Age. Modern Judaism evolved from Yahwism, the religion of ancient Israel and Judah, by the late 6th century BCE.
- Blood Libel
- Edict of Expulsion
- Alhambra Decree 1492
- Transatlantic Slave Trade
- Six Million Dead Jews
- Pogroms in the Russian Empire, 1821 – 1906
- 5th Column
In the Ugaritic Baal Cycle, ‘Anat is a violent war-goddess, a maiden (btlt ‘nt) who is the sister and, according to a much disputed theory, the lover of the great god Ba‘al Hadad. Ba‘al is usually called the son of Dagan and sometimes the son of El, who addresses ‘Anat as “daughter”. In a fragmentary passage from Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra), Syria ‘Anat appears as a fierce, wild and furious warrior in a battle, wading knee-deep in blood, striking off heads, cutting off hands, binding the heads to her torso and the hands in her sash, driving out the old men and townsfolk with her arrows, her heart filled with joy. “Her character in this passage anticipates her subsequent warlike role against the enemies of Baal”.
In Israel, the “goddess” name, ‘Anat is preserved in the city names Beth-Anath and Anathoth. Anathoth seems to be a plural form of the name, perhaps a shortening of bêt ‘anātôt 'House of the ‘Anats', either a reference to many shrines of the goddess or a plural of intensification. The ancient hero Shamgar, son of ‘Anat, is mentioned in Judges 3.31 and 5:6, which raises the idea that this “judge” or “hero” may have been understood as a demi-god, a mortal son of the goddess. But John Day (2000) notes that a number of Canaanites known from non-Biblical sources bore that title and theorises that it was a “military designation” indicating a warrior under ‘Anat's protection. Asenath, “holy to Anath”, was the wife of the Hebrew patriarch Joseph.
In Elephantine (modern Aswan) in Egypt, the 5th century BCE Elephantine papyri make mention of a goddess called Anat-Yahu (Anat-Yahweh) worshiped in the temple to Yahweh originally built by Jewish refugees from the Babylonian conquest of Judah. These suggest that “even in exile and beyond, the worship of a female deity endured.” The texts were written by a group of Jews living at Elephantine near the Nubian border, whose religion has been described as “nearly identical to Iron Age II Judahite religion”. The papyri describe the Jews as worshiping Anat-Yahu (or AnatYahu). Anat-Yahu is described as either the wife or paredra (sacred consort) of Yahweh, or as a hypostatized aspect of Yahweh.
Anat first appears in Egypt in the 16th dynasty (the Hyksos period) along with other north-west Semitic deities. She was especially worshipped in her aspect of a war goddess, often paired with the goddess `Ashtart. In the Contest Between Horus and Set, these two goddesses appear as daughters of Re and are given as allies to the god Set, who had been identified with the Semitic god Hadad. During the Hyksos period Anat had temples in the Hyksos capital of Avaris and in Beth-Shan (Israel) as well as being worshipped in Memphis. On inscriptions from Memphis of 15th to 12th centuries BCE, Anat is called "Bin-Ptah", Daughter of Ptah. She is associated with Reshpu (Canaanite: Resheph) in some texts, and sometimes identified with the native Egyptian goddess Neith. She is sometimes called “Queen of Heaven”. Her iconography varies. She is usually shown carrying one or more weapons.
It is vital that non-Jews acquire a fundamental understanding of the unconscionable hatred engendered by this primitive Jewish celebration of atavistic hatred, murder and revenge against their enemies, a feast called “Purim.” According to the Jewish religion, Purim means “Feast of Lots” which comes from the Jewish contention that Haman, who was the Prime Minister to the King of Persia, Xerxes (the Jews call him Ahasuerus), planned to kill all the Jews in the empire. Xerxes’ wife was the Jewish Esther and she with the Jewish leader Mordechai interceded with the King, to have Haman executed and allow the Jews to exact revenge upon those they saw as their enemies.
There is no archeological or historical evidence for any of this other than the bloodthirsty writings in Esther and it’s admittedly Jewish version of the events. The book of Esther records that Haman along with all of his ten sons were hanged, and that 75,000 Persians were slaughtered by the Jews. Interestingly enough, the Jews used Jewish influence (that of Esther) over a Gentile king to do their dirty work. In one instance, the book of Esther even frankly tells how the king was fooled into believing wrongly that Haman had cut down his beloved grove of trees. Esther explains that Haman did not do this but the angels did it and appeared to the keepers of the trees as Haman.
Over the centuries, this Jewish celebration of the murderous punishment of Haman and the supposed anti-Semites at Purim has become like a Mardi Gras celebration, but one with a shocking orgy of hate and hateful symbols, and it even includes foods symbolic of revenge and gore. In the synagogues Jewish children beat branches recreating the beating of Haman. They have skits where they symbolically hang children made up to look like him. They also scream and shout and curse his name in Synagogues during their reading of what they call the Megillah (the Jewish account of their massacre of Haman and the Persians). Here is quote from the most respected newspaper in Israel, The Jerusalem Post in an article called “How to Purim,” By Robin Treistman:
This display of hatred, within a house of worship, are the foods especially prepared for Purim, the two most famous are Hamantaschen, or “Haman’s ears,” and Kreplach. Hamantaschen are triangular-shaped dough pockets meant to symbolize Haman’s ears and Kreplach are dough pockets filled with ground beef symbolizing the beaten flesh of Haman. Here is a quote directly from Bar-Ilan University near Tel Aviv from their pamphlet created by the faculty called The Laws and Customs of Purim:
Wherein does the difference lie? It appears that the source of the difference is in the nature of the threat on the two different occasions in history. Haman aspired to destroy, kill, and eliminate the entire Jewish people – physical destruction. Antiochus [Chanukah], on the other hand, desired the cultural assimilation of the People of Israel The rabbi of the oldest synagogue in Washington, D.C., Rabbi Shmuel Herzfeld, explains it to his fellow Jews on the Internet in his article, “Bringing the Light to the Nations,” Purim, 5764. Rabbi Herzfeld is no lightweight Jew. His synagogue is important enough to be referred as the National Synagogue of the United States and Herzfeld is National Vice-President of a major Jewish organization, Coalition of Jewish Concerns—Amcha. Rabbi Herzfeld tells that most Jewish commentators understand the lesson as need to commit genocide on those seen as enemies of Jews, not just on the transgressors but their descendants as well. Here is an excerpt:
The lesson is clear, when it comes to Gentile enemies, you must show no mercy, completely wipe them out, “kill all the people, as well as all the animals.” Mordecai, the hero of Purim, doesn’t make that mistake, and he sees the lesson as very clear, Jews today shouldn’t make that mistake either. The mainstream Jews as represented by the National Synagogue take this message to heart. Unfortunately, many other Jews have done so as well. One Jew who did so was Rabbi Baruch Goldstein who on Purim in 1994 went into the religious Shrine of the Patriarchs and while they knelt in prayer, Goldstein used a machine gun to kill 30 and wound 150 Palestinians. Fortunately, there are a few courageous Jewish rabbis, a small minority, who recognize the hate and extremism promoted by Purim. Rabbi Arthur Waskow speaks about it in his article, The Renewal of Purim and the Fast of Esther.
Another Jewish voice, Rabbi J. Jacobs also reveals the hateful nature of Purim and the association of non-Jews, such as Palestinians, with Amalek.
However, the ethical response has not come, and Jewish groups around the world are ramping up the hate engendered at Purim toward a man the Jewish extremists consider the latest Haman. According to The Jerusalem Post on February 26, 2007, Jewish extremists in Israel are organizing 10,000 Jewish children to pray for the death of former President Ahmadinejad of Iran.
Understanding the genocidal and hateful source of the Purim story is essential to understanding the radical Jewish extremism that permeates far too much of the mainstream Jewish community. In the Purim story, a supposed conspiracy to kill Jews in mass is used as a justification for Jews to commit a genocide of their own that they boisterously celebrate every year for 2500 years. They use the lesson of Purim as a lesson not of love and redemption, but a celebration of hate and the need to be completely merciless with their enemies.
In another article in the Jerusalem Post giving Internet lessons for young Jews, it says:
The final paragraph of The Jerusalem Post article is itself a lesson the depth of self-deception about Purim to Jews themselves, and deception about Purim to us, the Gentiles of the world.
William of Norwich
William of Norwich (2 February 1132 – c. 22 March 1144) was an English boy whose disappearance and killing was, at the time, attributed to the Jewish community of Norwich. It is the first known medieval accusation against Jews of ritual murder. William was an apprentice tanner who regularly came into contact with Jews and visited their homes as part of his trade. His murder remains unsolved; the local community of Norwich attributed the boy's death to the Jews, though the local authorities would not convict them for lack of proof. William's story was told in The Life and Miracles of St William of Norwich, a multi-volume Latin work by Thomas of Monmouth, a monk in the Norwich Benedictine monastery.
Thomas of Monmouth arrived in Norwich around 1150. At the urging of the Bishop, he decided to investigate the killing by interviewing surviving witnesses. He also spoke to people whom he identified as converted Jews who provided him with inside information about events within the Jewish community. In his account of the murder, Thomas of Monmouth writes that “having shaved his head, they stabbed it with countless thornpoints, and made the blood come horribly from the wounds they made...some of those present ad judged him to be fixed to a cross in mockery of the Lord's Passion.”. William's body was later said to have been found in Thorpe Wood with a crown of thorns atop his head.
Thomas of Monmouth's account hinges upon the testimony of a monk and former Jew named Theobald of Cambridge. Theobald alleged that the murder was a human sacrifice and that the "ancient writings of his fathers" required the yearly killing of a Christian. This was allegedly for two reasons: to one day return to the Holy Land during the Messianic Age and to punish Jesus Christ for the persecution that the Jewish people continued to experience at the hands of his followers. Theobald also alleged, however, that the murderers were not practitioners of Orthodox Judaism. The murder was instead ordered at Narbonne, by a cult leader who had declared himself to be the Jewish Messiah and who had cast lots to select where in Europe his followers were to commit the murder.
Thomas supports this claim by saying that one converted Jew told him that there was an argument over how to dispose of the body. He also says that a Christian servant woman glimpsed the child through a chink in a door. Another man is said to have confessed on his deathbed, years after the events, that he saw a group of Jews transporting a body on a horse in the woods.
Robert of Bury
Robert of Bury (died 1181) was an English boy, allegedly murdered and found in the town of Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk in 1181. Though a hagiography of Robert was written, no copies are known, so the story of his life is now unknown beyond the few fragmentary references to it that survive. Tradition states that Robert was kidnapped and then killed on Good Friday 1181. John Lydgate wrote a poem entitled Prayer for St. Robert, which implies that the story of his death closely mirrored that of William of Norwich, in which Jews kidnapped the child with the help of a Judas-like Christian accomplice, tortured and then crucified him over Easter in a parody of Jesus's death. Lydgate says he was "scourged and nailed to a tree".
Edict of Expulsion, 1290
The Edict of Expulsion was a royal decree issued by King Edward I of England on 18 July 1290 expelling all Jews from the Kingdom of England. Edward advised the sheriffs of all counties he wanted all Jews expelled by no later than All Saints' Day (1 November) that year. The expulsion edict remained in force for the rest of the Middle Ages. The edict was overturned during the Protectorate more than 350 years later, when Oliver Cromwell permitted Jews to return to England in 1657.
The first Jewish communities of significant size came to England with William the Conqueror in 1066. After the conquest of England, William instituted a feudal system in the country, whereby all estates formally belonged to the Crown; the king then appointed lords over these vast estates, but they were subject to duties and obligations (financial and military) to the king. Under the lords were other subjects such as serfs, who were bound and obliged to their lords, and to their lords' obligations.
Merchants had a special status in the system, as did Jews. Jews were declared to be direct subjects of the king, unlike the rest of the Gentile population, who became interned into Serfdom. This was an ambivalent legal position for the Jewish population, in that they were not tied to any particular lord but were subject to the whims of the king. Every successive king formally reviewed a royal charter, granting Jews the right to remain in England. The reputation of Jews as extortionate moneylenders arose, which made them extremely unpopular with both the Church and the general public.
An image of the Jew as a diabolical figure who hated Christ started to become widespread, and accounts such as the tale of the Wandering Jew and allegations of ritual murders originated and spread throughout England as well as in Scotland and Wales. In frequent cases of blood libel, Jews were said to hunt for children to murder before Passover so that they could use their blood to make the unleavened matzah. The situation only got worse for Jews as the 13th century progressed. In 1218, Henry III of England proclaimed the Edict of the Badge, requiring Jews to wear a marking badge [sound familiar?]. Henry III imposed greater segregation and reinforced the wearing of badges in the 1253 Statute of Jewry.
To counter spiralling debt, Henry III's court and major Barons bought Jewish debts with the intention of securing lands of lesser nobles through defaults. he Second Barons' War in the 1260s brought a series of pogroms aimed at destroying the evidence of these debts and Jewish communities in major towns, including London, Worcester, Canterbury, and many other towns. The Statute of the Jewry outlawed all lending at interest and gave Jews fifteen years to readjust. In the duchy of Gascony in 1287, King Edward ordered the local Jews expelled. All their property was seized by the crown, and all outstanding debts payable to Jews were transferred to the King's name.
By the time he returned to England in 1289, King Edward was deeply in debt, Jews had become a significant threat to the Gentile Kingdom. The next summer, he summoned his knights to impose a steep tax. To make the tax more palatable, Edward, in exchange, essentially offered to expel all Jews. The heavy tax was passed, and three days later, on 18 July, the Edict of Expulsion was issued. The official reason for the expulsion was that Jews had declined to follow the Statute of Jewry and continued to practice usury. The edict of expulsion was widely popular and met with little resistance, and the expulsion was quickly carried out.
Many Jews emigrated, to Scotland, France, and the Netherlands, and as far as Poland. Occasionally permits were given to individuals to visit England, as in the case of Dr Elias Sabot (an eminent physician from Bologna summoned to attend Henry IV) in 1410, but it was not until the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492 and Portugal in 1497 that any considerable number of Sephardic Jews found refuge in England. In 1542, many were arrested on the suspicion of being Jews, and throughout the sixteenth century a number of persons named Aaron López of Newport (infamous Jewish Slave Trading Family), took refuge in England, one of them known to Queen Elizabeth I, as a physician named Rodrigo López.
Alhambra Decree 1492
By the end of the 8th century, Muslim forces had conquered and settled most of the Iberian Peninsula. Under Islamic law, the Jews, who had lived in the region since at least Roman times, were considered “People of the Book,” which was a protected status. The tolerance of the Muslim Moorish rulers of al-Andalus allowed Jewish communities to advance. Jewish merchants were able to trade freely across the Islamic world and thus made Jewish enclaves in Muslim Iberian cities great centres of learning and commerce. Jewish culture spread significantly, Jewish scholars were able to gain favour in Muslim courts as skilled physicians, diplomats, translators, and poets. In Granada, Jewish men were appointed to very high offices, including Grand Vizier.
The Reconquista, or the gradual reconquest of Muslim Iberia by the Christian kingdoms in the North, was driven by a powerful religious motivation: to reclaim Iberia for Christendom following the Umayyad conquest of Hispania centuries before. By the 14th century, most of the Iberian Peninsula (present-day Spain and Portugal) had been reconquered by the Christian kingdoms of Castile, Aragon, León, Galicia, Navarre, and Portugal. During the Christian re-conquest, the Muslim kingdoms in Spain became less welcoming to the dhimmi (a term for non-Muslims living in an Islamic state with legal protection. The word literally means “protected person”).
In the late twelfth century, the Muslims in al-Andalus invited the fanatical Almohad dynasty from North Africa to push the Christians back to the North. After they gained control of the Iberian Peninsula, the Almohads offered the Sephardim a choice between expulsion, conversion, and death. Many Jews fled to other parts of the Muslim world, and also to the Christian kingdoms, which initially welcomed them. In Christian Spain, Jews functioned as courtiers, government officials, merchants, and moneylenders. The Jewish community was both useful to the ruling classes and to an extent protected by them.
Hostility towards the Jews in Spain was brought to a climax during the reign of the “Catholic Monarchs,” Ferdinand and Isabella. Their marriage in 1469, which formed a personal union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile, with coordinated policies between their distinct kingdoms, eventually led to the final unification of Spain. Although their initial policies towards the Jews were protective, Ferdinand and Isabella were disturbed by reports claiming that most Jewish converts to Christianity were insincere in their conversion; Conversos continued to practice Judaism in secret (see Crypto-Judaism) drawing conversos back into the Jewish fold.
The independent Islamic Emirate of Granada had been a tributary state to Castile since 1238. Jews and conversos played an important role during this campaign because they had the ability to raise money and acquire weapons through their extensive trade networks. This perceived increase in Jewish influence further infuriated the Old Christians and the hostile elements of the clergy. By 1492, Ferdinand and Isabella had won the Battle of Granada and completed the Catholic Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula from Islamic forces. However, the Jewish population emerged from the campaign more hated by the populace and less useful to the monarchs.
The king and queen issued the Alhambra Decree less than three months after the surrender of Granada. The text of the decree accused the Jews of trying “to subvert the holy Catholic faith” by attempting to “draw faithful Christians away from their beliefs.” After the decree was passed, Spain's entire Jewish population was given only four months to either convert to Christianity or leave the country. The edict promised the Jews royal protection and security for the effective three-month window before the deadline. They were permitted to take their belongings with them, excluding “gold or silver or minted money or other things prohibited by the laws of our kingdoms”. The punishment for any Jew who did not convert or leave by the deadline was summary execution.
The Sephardic Jews migrated to four major areas: North Africa, the Ottoman Empire, Portugal, and Italy. Some Spanish Jews who emigrated to avoid conversion dispersed throughout the region of North Africa known as the Maghreb. The Jewish scholars and physicians among previous Sephardic immigrants to this area had reinvigorated the Jewish communities in North Africa. Jews in North Africa often intermingled with the already existing Mizrahi Arabic or Berber-speaking communities, becoming the ancestors of the Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, and Libyan Jewish communities. Related: Barbary Coast Slave Trade.
Many Spanish Jews also fled to the Ottoman Empire, where they were given refuge. Sultan Bayezid II of the Ottoman Empire, learning about the expulsion of Jews from Spain, dispatched the Ottoman Navy to bring the Jews safely to Ottoman lands, mainly to the cities of Thessaloniki (currently in Greece) and İzmir (currently in Turkey); these Jews became known as the Donmeh. Many of these Jews also settled in other parts of the Balkans ruled by the Ottomans, such as the areas that are now Bulgaria, Serbia, and Bosnia.
A majority of Sephardim migrated to Portugal, where they gained only a few years of respite from persecution. About 600 Jewish families were allowed to stay in Portugal following an exorbitant bribe until the Portuguese king entered negotiations to marry the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella. Caught between his desire for an alliance with Spain and his economic reliance on the Jews, Manuel I declared the Jewish community in Portugal (perhaps then some 10% of that country's population) Christians by royal decree unless they left the country. In return, he promised the Inquisition would not come to Portugal for 40 years.
The Alhambra decree lasted a staggering 476 years and was not officially revoked until 1968, after the Second Vatican Council rejected the charge of deicide traditionally attributed to the Jews. From November 2012 Sephardi Jews have had the right to automatic Spanish nationality without the requirement of residence in Spain. Before November 2012, Sephardi Jews already had the right to obtain Spanish citizenship after a reduced residency period of two years. While their citizenship is being processed, Sephardi Jews are entitled to the consular protection of the Kingdom of Spain. As of November 2015, 4300 Sephardi Jews have benefited from this law and acquired Spanish citizenship.
Shabbetai Zevi crowned as the Messiah in 1666 then shocked the Jewish world by converting to Islam. The Donmeh (followers of Zevi named Sabbetaens) destroyed the Ottoman Empire from within, created Wahabbism founded Saudia Arabia to secure a Jewish state of Israel.
Messiahs of Death
There were numerous Jewish secret societies of Sabbateans (followers of Sabbatai Zevi), known as Donmeh, in Eastern Poland (now Ukraine), particularly in Podolia and Galicia, at the end of the seventeenth century. In expectation of the great Messianic revolution, the members of these societies violated Jewish laws and customs. The cult of the Sabbateans is believed to have included both asceticism and sensuality: some did penance for their sins, subjected themselves to self-inflicted pain, and “mourned for Zion”; others disregarded the strict rules of modesty required by Judaism, and at times were accused of being licentious.
The name Shabbetai literally means the planet Saturn, and in Jewish tradition “The reign of Sabbatai”, the highest planet, was often linked to the advent of the Messiah. Zevi's family were Romaniote Jews from Patras; his father, Mordecai, was a poultry dealer in the Morea. During the war between Turkey and Venice, Smyrna became the center of Levantine trade. Mordecai became the Smyrna agent of an English trading house; Sabbatai hance learned about Western millenarian expectations at his father's house. This was said to combine influence of English/Dutch Calvinist millenarianism within the messianic movement that later developed around Zevi's activities. Influenced by Isaac Luria, Zevi Sabbatai studied mysticism and the kabbalah.
During the first half of the 17th century, millenarian ideas of the approach of the Messianic time were popular. They included ideas of the redemption of the Jews and their return to the land of Israel, with independent sovereignty. The apocalyptic year was identified by Christian authors as 1666 and millenarianism was widespread in England. This belief was so prevalent that Manasseh ben Israel, in his letter to Oliver Cromwell and the Rump Parliament, appealed to it as a reason to re-admit Jews into England, saying, “[T]he opinions of many Christians and mine do concur herein, that we both believe that the restoring time of our Nation into their native country is very near at hand.”.
At age 22 in 1648, Sabbatai started declaring to his followers in Smyrna that he was the true Messianic redeemer. To prove this claim, he started to pronounce the Tetragrammaton, an act which Judaism emphatically prohibited to all but the Jewish high priest in the Temple in Jerusalem on the Day of Atonement. By 1658, he was in Constantinople, where he met a preacher, Abraham Yachini (a disciple of Joseph di Trani), who confirmed Sabbatai's messianic mission. Yachini is said to have forged a manuscript in archaic characters which, he alleged, bore testimony to Sabbatai's Messiahship. It was entitled “The Great Wisdom of Solomon”, and began:
Vast numbers of Jews in the Jewish diaspora accepted his claims, even after he outwardly became an apostate due to his conversion to Islam in the same year. Sabbatai Zevi's followers, both during his “Messiahship” and after his conversion to Islam, are known as Sabbateans, many live in Turkey as the Donmeh. Much to the shock and chagrin of the Jewish world, Sabbatai appeases the Sultan. He then begins to lay the groundwork restructuring of the world based on universalism and world brotherhood, ruled by an elite of his devoted followers.
Sabbatai was taken from Abydos to Adrianople, where the sultan's vizier gave him three choices; subject himself to a trial of his divinity in the form of a volley of arrows (in which should the archers miss, his divinity would be proven); be impaled; or convert to Islam… On September 16, 1666 (Zevi cast off his Jewish garb, put a Turkish turban on his head and officially abandoned his faith for Islam. Some days after his conversion he wrote to Smyrna: “God has made me an Ishmaelite; He commanded, and it was done. The ninth day of my regeneration”.
Many within Zevi's inner circle followed him into Islam, including his whore wife Sarah and most of his closest relatives and friends. Meanwhile, inside the Ottoman Empire, those followers of Zevi who had converted to Islam but who secretly continued Jewish observances and Brit Mila became known as the Dönme (Turkish: dönme “convert”). There were some internal subdivisions within the sect, according to the geographical locations of the group, and according to whom the leaders of these groups were after the death of Shabbatai Zevi.
The Dönmeh, along with traditional Jews, became powerful political and business leaders in Salonica. It was this core group of Dönmeh, which organized the secret Young Turks, also known as the Committee of Union and Progress, the secularists who deposed Ottoman Sultan Abdulhamid II in the 1908 revolution, proclaimed the post-Ottoman Republic of Turkey after World War I, and who instituted a campaign that stripped Turkey of much of its Islamic identity after the fall of the Ottomans.
Abdulhamid II was vilified by the Young Turks as a tyrant, but his only real crime appears to have been to refuse to meet Zionist leader Theodore Herzl during a visit to Constantinople in 1901 and reject Zionist and Dönmeh offers of money in return for the Zionists to be granted control of Jerusalem. Sultan Adulhamid II appears to have sealed his fate with the Dönmeh with this statement to his Ottoman court:
After his ouster by Ataturk’s Young Turk Dönmeh in 1908, Abdulhamid II was jailed in the Donmeh citadel of Salonica. He died in Constantinople in 1918, three years after Ibn Saud agreed to a Jewish homeland in Palestine and one year after Lord Balfour deeded Palestine away to the Zionists in his letter to Baron Rothschild. Some texts suggest that the Dönmeh numbered no more than 150,000 and were mainly found in the army, government, and business. However, other experts suggest that the Dönmeh may have represented 1.5 million Turks and were even more powerful than believed by many and extended to every facet of Turkish life.
Ataturk, who was reportedly himself a Dönmeh, ordered that Turks abandon their own Muslim-Arabic names. The name of the first Christian emperor of Rome, Constantine, was erased from the largest Turkish city, Constantinople. The city became Istanbul, after the Ataturk government in 1923 objected to the traditional name. There have been many questions about Ataturk’s own name, since “Mustapha Kemal Ataturk” was a pseudonym. Some historians have suggested that Ataturk adopted his name because he was a descendant of none other than Rabbi Zevi, the self-proclaimed Messiah of the Dönmeh! Ataturk also abolished Turkey’s use of the Arabic script and forced the country to adopt the western alphabet.
In The Forward of January 28, 1994 and in The New York Sun, Hillel Halkin wrote that Ataturk recited the Jewish Shema Yisrael (“Hear O Israel”), saying that it was “my prayer too.”” Halkin wrote in The New York Sun article about an email he received from a Turkish colleague: “I now know — and I haven’t a shred of doubt — that Ataturk’s father’s family was indeed of Jewish stock.” An article in The Forward of May 8, 2007, revealed that Dönmeh dominated Turkish leadership “from the president down, as well as key diplomats… and a great part of Turkey’s military, cultural, academic, economic, and professional elites” kept Turkey out of a World War II alliance with Germany, and deprived Hitler of a Turkish route to the Baku oilfields”.
In his book, The Donme: Jewish Converts, Muslim Revolutionaries and Secular Turks, Professor Marc David Baer wrote that many advanced to exalted positions in the Sufi religious orders. Israel has always been reluctant to describe the Turkish massacre of the Armenians by the Turks in 1915 as “genocide”. It has always been believed that the reason for Israel’s reticence was not to upset Israel’s close military and diplomatic ties with Turkey. However, more evidence is being uncovered that the Armenian Genocide was largely the work of the Dönmeh leadership of the Young Turks. Historians like Ahmed Refik, who served as an intelligence officer in the Ottoman army, averred that it was the aim of the Young Turks to destroy the Armenians, who were mostly Christian.
Jacob Joseph Frank (born Jakub Lejbowicz; 1726 – December 10, 1791) was an 18th-century Polish-Jewish religious leader who claimed to be the reincarnation of the self-proclaimed messiah Sabbatai Zevi (1626–1676) and also of the biblical patriarch Jacob. The Jewish authorities in Poland excommunicated Frank and his followers due to his heretical doctrines that included deification of himself as a part of a trinity and other controversial concepts such as neo-Carpocratian “purification through transgression”.
The Sabbateans informed Mikołaj Dembowski, the Catholic Bishop of Kamieniec Podolski, Poland, that they not only rejected but inverted the Talmud and recognized only the sacred book of Kabbalah, the Zohar, which did not contradict the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. They stated that they regarded the Messiah-Deliverer as one of the embodiments of the three divinities. took Frank and his followers (the “Anti-Talmudists”, or "Zoharistic Jews”) under his protection and in 1757 arranged a religious disputation between them and the rabbis of the traditionalist community.
The Anti-Talmudists presented their theses, which began the intense dispute. Dembowski sided in favour of the Frankists and also ordered the burning of all copies of the Talmud in Poland. 10,000 volumes were destroyed. Sabbatean Revelations called for the conversion of Frank and his followers to the Christian religion, which was to be a visible transition stage to the future "das” or religion to be revealed by Frank. In 1759 negotiations looking toward the conversion of the Frankists to Roman Catholicism were being actively carried on with the higher representatives of the Polish Church; at the same time, the Frankists tried to secure another discussion with the rabbis. But a year later, Frank was eventually accused of heresy and was thrown into the Citadel of Czenstokova. Frank lived comfortably at the monastery for 13 years.
Additionally, because many were now “officially” Catholic, they were able to join or form Masonic lodges where they liked to plot and conspire. In particular, the elite Frankist inbred families operated out of the Mason Order of Asiatic Brethren in Vienna. More lodges were opened in Hamburg and Berlin. Even gentile Masonic lodges were very amenable to Jewish converts to Christianity, especially among men of means (crypto-Jew Frankists) who could grease palms and provide sexual favors. This led to a path of infiltration and, of course, compromising control.
The Sabbatean-Frankists inverted traditional Jewish-Christian values, including the 10 Commandments, restrictions on debauched sexuality, man’s dominion over the environment, etc. Further, given Sabbatean-Frankism’s apocalyptic nature, the modernLeft is riven with irrational destructive impulses. From that debauchery was born the theology of Redemption Through Sin, a complete inversion of the Christian theology of promoting love as the expression to aim for redemption. Inversion is the method of Kabbalah, it is the sophistry they espouse that entraps and thus condemns a weak soul to slavery.
Following the death of Jakob Frank in 1791, his movement fell apart. About a century later, “Neo-Frankism” and related Jewish mysticism became common among Jewish intelligentsia. The following listed infuential intellectuals are all linked to Sabbatean-Frankism:
- Communism (Karl Marx)
- Sexual depravity (Sigmund Freud)
- Corporate Leftism (Edward Bernays)
- Multiculturalism (Horace Kallen)
- Deconstructivism/Critical Theory (Walter Benjamin)
- Frankfurt School (Theodore Adorno)
- Radical jurisprudence (Brandeis, Frankfurter, and Cardozo)
- Large-scale, non-selective immigration (Israel Zangwill, Emma Lazarus)
Frankism is a distinct system from Sabbateanism (it has less mysticism and more radicalism and is more primed as a political movement). Frank is notable for innovating ideas such as contemporary feminism and Labour Zionism. Notoriously, Frankists engaged in orgies, paedophilia, adultery, wife-swapping, murder, and all manner of sin, ritualistically. Gramsci’s Long March allowed nearly all institutions of the West (religious, political, and corporate) to be taken over by neo-Frankism. The “Frankist Paradigm” is the set of neo-Frankist beliefs that have now metastasized across Western culture. These ideas find resonance in a multicultural society, where animosities brew under the surface and politics becomes a proxy for ethnic warfare.
- Without traditionalism, society becomes insipid and narcissistic, finding itself attracted to radical politics as a catharsis and a sadistic release.
- Without unity, society divides into warring factions. The Frankist Paradigm weaponizes these conflicts, producing a society of malcontents more interested in destruction and animosity than collective progress.
Sabbatean-Frankists were deeply cynical and relish deception. Frankists were commanded: “a believer must not appear as he really is”. So, instead of saying that they were influenced by Frank, they make up risible hagiography-worthy stories of their profound altruism and humanity (Marx claiming that he was inspired to Communism by seeing unneeded scrap wood not being shared to help keep the German locals warm). The three most significant immigration activists of the Victorian Era: Israel Zangwill, Emma Lazarus, and Horace Kellen, are similarly all linked to Sabbatean-Frankism. They even had a secretive Sabbatean-style Zionist organization where Horace Kallen, Stephen Wise, and Brandeis operated.
Sabbatean-Frankists often held psychotic narcissistic fantasies of the West’s destruction at their hands: Marx’s “Revolution” and Satanic poetry of destruction or Freud fancying himself as Hannibal, conqueror of the West. This obsession with destruction, as an end in itself, stands in contrast to traditional “gentile” Leftism. Unitarian soppose traditional Christian values, yet they do not seem obsessed with destroying all sane, rational order. Sabbatean-Frankists cynically feigned “secular humanism”, but they represent a distinctideology from, say, Robespierre, who sought a form of rational order. Even Marquis deSade is viewed as a satirist by Camille Paglia. But, there is nothing satirical about Freud or Marx.
Sabbatean-Frankists were nearly always Germanic Jews. Germanic Jews comprise atiny portion of global Jewry (even before the Holocaust). As mentioned earlier, modernneo-Frankists often had origins in specific areas historically known for Sabbatean-Frankist activity: Posen, Warsaw, Prague, Vienna, Frankfurt. This regionality strengthens the argument that this is a distinct intellectual movement. Jews were uniquely prone to Frankism. Wealthy, narcissistic, and brilliant, the German elite was embarrassed by their Jewish roots and traditions. Felix Mendhellson was so ashamed of his Jewish background that he played under a Christian name. They sought to forge a new identity for Judaism and to establish dominion over Israel through their Zionist project.
When the Frankists established themselves in 1786 in Offenbach, they were patronized by “unidentified philanthropists” of the Frankfurt community. But during the Frankfurt Masonic Lodge’s formative years, the three most active members of the Frankfurt Judenloge were Frankist-influenced: Sigmund Geisenheimer, Michael Hess (1782-1860) and Justus Hiller. They were also leaders in the liberal Jewish Reformist movement. Michael Hess was hired by Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744-1812) as a tutor for his children. Geisenheimer was Mayer Rothschild’s head clerk. Thus, the spirit and mentality of Frankism received a large boost from the richest family in Europe. Incidentally, 29 out of 58 of Mayer Amschel Rothschild’s grandchildren married first or second cousins.
The union between the secret societies of Illuminism and Freemasonry was sealed in 1782 at the Congress of Wilhelmbad. The other movement that was brought forth at the Congress was pro-Semitism, or the emancipation of the Jews. This, of course, included opening up the Masonic Lodges to them. The Illuminism headquarters was relocated to Rothschild centre of Frankfurt at the same time. Curiously, this new movement corresponded with the rise of the Sabbattean-Frankist influenced House of Rothschild, as well as the Jewish families Oppenheimer, Wertheimer, Schuster, Spreyer and Stern in Frankfurt.
Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab
Upon his expulsion from 'Uyayna, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab was invited to settle in neighboring Diriyah by its ruler Muhammad bin Saud. After some time in Diriyah, Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab concluded his second and more successful agreement with a ruler. Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab and Muhammad bin Saud agreed that, together, they would bring the Arabs of the peninsula back to the “true” principles of Islam as they saw it. According to one source, when they first met, bin Saud declared:
Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab replied:
The agreement was confirmed with a mutual oath of loyalty (bay'ah) in 1744. Ibn Abd al-Wahhab would be responsible for religious matters and Ibn Saud in charge of political and military issues. This agreement became a “mutual support pact” and power-sharing arrangement between the Al Saud family, and the Al ash-Sheikh and followers of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, which has remained in place for nearly 300 years. The pact marked the emergence of the first Saudi state, the Emirate of Diriyah. By offering the Al Saud a clearly defined religious mission, the alliance provided the ideological impetus to Saudi expansion. Saud's forces then expanded the Salafi influence to most of the present-day territory of Saudi Arabia, eradicating various popular practices they viewed as akin to polytheism and propagating the doctrines of ʿAbd al-Wahhab.
Historical accounts of Wahhab also state that “Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab saw it as his mission to restore a purer and original form of the faith of Islam. […] Anyone who didn't adhere to this interpretation were considered polytheists worthy of death, including fellow Muslims (especially Shi'ite who venerate the family of Muhammad), Christians and others. In 2010, Prince Salman bin Abdul-Aziz at the time-serving as the governor of Riyadh said that the teaching of Muhammad Ibn Abdul-Wahab was pure Islam, and said regarding his works, “I dare anyone to bring a single alphabetical letter from the Sheikh's books that goes against the book of Allah … and the teachings of his prophet, Mohammed.”.
House of Saud
An Iraqi intellegence report documented that both Abdul Wahhab, and his sponsor, ibn Saud, who founded the Saudi dynasty, were of Jewish origin (from Donmeh Jews from Turkey). The House of Saud linked with Wahhabism through marriage of Bin Saud’s son, Abdul Aziz, with al-Wahhab’s daughter in 1744 with goal to unify the Arabian Peninsula and to spread a more surface view of Islam embodied by Wahhabism.
Hafez Wahbi, The Saudi Legal Adviser, in his book entitled: “The peninsula of Arabia” said King Abdul Aziz Al-Saud, who died in 1953, had said:
Transatlantic Slave Trade
The Transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas. The slave trade regularly used the triangular trade route and its Middle Passage, and existed from the 16th to the 19th centuries.
Newport on Rhode Island was the centre of the American slave trade and also had America's oldest Synagogue…
Some of the most prolific Jewish importers of slaves were Isaac Da Costa of Charleston in the 1750s, David Franks of Philadelphia in the 1760s and Aaron Lopez of Newport in the late 1760s and early 1770s dominated Jewish slave trading on the American continent.
Here is an incomplete list of Slave Ships and their Jewish Owners…
- Ship: Abigail / Owner: Aaron Lopez, Moses Levy, Jacob Franks
- Ship: Crown / Owner: Issac Levy and Nathan Simpson
- Ship: Nassau / Owner: Moses Levy
- Ship: Four Sisters / Owner: Moses Levy
- Ship: Anne & Eliza / Owner: Justus Bosch and John Abrams
- Ship: Prudent Betty / Owner: Henry Cruger and Jacob Phoenix
- Ship: Hester / Owner: Mordecai and David Gomez
- Ship: Elizabeth / Owner: Mordecai and David Gomez
- Ship: Antigua / Owner: Nathan Marston and Abram Lyell
- Ship: Betsy / Owner: Wm. De Woolf
- Ship: Polly / Owner: James De Woolf
- Ship: White Horse / Owner: Jan de Sweevts
- Ship: Expedition / Owner: John and Jacob Rooseveltv
- Ship: Charlotte / Owner: Moses and Sam Levy and Jacob Franks
- Ship: Caracoa / Owner: Moses and Sam Levy
Others know Jewish dealers, owners, shippers, or supporters of the slave trade include: Jacob Barsimson, Joseph Bueno, Solomon Myers Cohen, Jacob Fonseca, Aberham Franckfort, Daniel Gomez, Isaac Gomez, Lewis Gomez, Rebekah Gomez, Ephraim Hart, Judah Hays, Harmon Hendricks, Uriah Hendricks, Uriah Hyam, Abraham Isaacs, Joshua Isaacs, Samuel Jacobs, Benjamin S. Judah, Cary Judah, Elizabeth Judah, Arthur Levy, Eleazar Levy, Hayman Levy, Jacob Levy, Joseph Israel Levy, Joshua Levy, Uriah Phillips Levy, Isaac R. Marques, Moses Michaels, (E)Manuel Myers, Seixas Nathan, Simon Nathan, Rodrigo Pacheco, David Pardo, Isaac Pinheiro, Rachel Pinto, Morris Jacob, Raphall Abraham Sarzedas, Moses Seixas, Solomon Simpson, Simja De Torres, Benjamin Wolf, Alexander Zuntz
The trans-Atlantic slave trade was so thoroughly Jewish that slave auctions throughout the Americas had to be postponed on Jewish holidays.
Jews have dominated the slave trade in the entire western world for the last two thousand years.
Less than five per cent of non-Jewish whites in the south owned slaves, less than two per cent of whites in all of America; whilst forty per cent of Jewish American households owned slaves. Statistically, Jews were two thousand per cent more likely to own slaves than whites.
The Abolition of Slavery Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom expanded the jurisdiction of the Slave Trade Act 1807 and made the purchase or ownership of slaves illegal within the British Empire, with the exception of “the Territories in the Possession of the East India Company”, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and Saint Helena. The Act provided for payments to slave-owners. The amount of money to be spent on the payments was set at “the Sum of Twenty Million Pounds Sterling”. Under the terms of the Act, the British government raised £20 million to pay out for the loss of the slaves as business assets to the registered owners of the freed slaves.
In 1833, £20 million amounted to 40% of the Treasury's annual income or approximately 5% of British GDP at the time. To finance the payments, the British government took on a £15 million loan, finalised on 3 August 1835, with banker Nathan Mayer Rothschild and his brother-in-law Moses Montefiore; £5 million was paid out directly in government stock, worth £1.5 billion in present day. The money was not paid back by the British taxpayers until 2015, when the British Government decided to modernise the gilt portfolio by redeeming all remaining undated gilts.
In fact, brave white Anglo-Americans such as Deists Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine enacted to end the slave trade by endeavouring to put it as cruelty despite influencial protest from powerful Jewish lobbying pressure.
Six Million Dead Jews
The magic Six million number has been echoed throughout the millennium, centuries before the alleged war crimes of Hitler were told upon the six million plinth to ignite a long-awaited Talmudic prophecy, a gift of a nation, were power crazed Zionists will rule the entire world with absolute impunity.
Below is a list of Two Hundred and Eighty-Four Pre-Nuremberg References to “six million Jews,” Starting in 1850
- 1850 — British Society for the Propagation of the Gospel among the Jews (ed.), The Jewish Herald and Record of Christian Effort for the Spiritual Good of God’s Ancient People, Vol. V, Aylott & Jones, London, August 1850, page 216: “there are now living about 6,000,000 Israelites” in the world (reprinted in the Christian Spectator 1850, page 496).
- 1866 — Brigham Young, The Latter-Day Saints’ Millennial Star, Vol. 28, London 1866, p. 677: “there are but about 6,000,000 Jews in the world”
- 1869 — The New York Times, 12 September 1869, page 8: “there are now living about 6,000,000 Israelites, nearly one half of whom live in Europe.” Repeated on 31 October 1869.
- 1889 — The New York Times, 10 February 1889: “How Many Jews Are There? […] the lowest [estimate] that could be entertained, stated the number of the ubiquitous race at 6,000,000.”
- 1891 — The New York Times, 26 January 1891: “Russia’s population of five million to six million Jews […] about six million persecuted and miserable wretches.”
- 1891 — Herold Frederic, “An Indictment of Russia,” The New York Times, 12 September 1891: “as to the entire number of Jews in Russia […] a total of 6,000,000 is most nearly correct.”
- 1896 — “Russia and Religious Liberty,” The New York Times, 15 March 1891: “the [Russian] Jews are 5,000,000 or 6,000,000.”
- 1900 — Stephen S. Wise, New York Times, 11 June 1900: “There are 6,000,000 living, bleeding, suffering arguments in favour of Zionism.”
- 1902 — Encyclopaedia Britannica, 10th Edition, Vol. 25, 1902, page 482: “While there are in Russia and Rumania six millions of Jews who are being systematically degraded…”
- 1902 — Samuel W. Goldstein, New York Times, 27 November 1902: “PLEA FOR ZIONISM… In answer, I would say: Does Dr. Silverman represent the 6,000,000 Jews in Russia, 300,000 in Romania and the 1,000,000 in Galicia?”
- 1903 — The Jewish Criterion (Pittsburgh), 18 September 1903, page 6: “… six million downtrodden brethren.”
- 1904 — The Jewish Criterion (Pittsburgh), 19 February 1904, page 2: “… where five or six million people existed under persecution.”
- 1904 — The Jewish Criterion (Pittsburgh), 7 October 1904, page 1: “… the final and definite deliverance of the six millions of Russian, Romanian and Galician Jews… transporting five or six million people over the sea.”
- 1904 — Israel Zangwill, New York Times, 20 October 1904: “The problem does not relate to the American Jews, but to the 6,000,000 in Russia. The Russian Government has consented to allow the Jews to leave,”
- 1905 — New York Times, 29 January 1905: “[Rev Dr Harris] declared that a free and a happy Russia, with its 6,000,000 Jews, would possibly mean the end of Zionism, since the abolition of the autocracy would practically eliminate the causes that brought Zionism into existence.”
- 1905 — New York Times, 1 November 1905: “From 1890 to 1902 [Chief Procurator of the Holy Synod Pobledonostzeff] caused 6,000,000 Jewish families to be expelled from Russia…”
- 1906 — New York Times, 25 March 1906: “Startling reports the condition and future of Russia’s 6,000,000 Jews were made on March 12 in Berlin to the annual meeting of the Central Jewish Relief League of Germany by Dr. Paul Nathan… He left St. Petersburg with the firm conviction that the Russian Government’s studied policy for the ‘solution’ of the Jewish question is systematic and murderous extermination.”
- 1907 — The Jewish Criterion (Pittsburgh), 18 October 1907, page 13: “… for six million people cannot emigrate”.
- 1908 — Deseret Evening News, 17 March 1908: “… poverty, starvation and disease are the afflictions which now beset the six million Jews in that country and Romania.”
- 1908 — The Jewish Criterion (Pittsburgh), 7 August 1908: “… when six million Russian Jews are crying…”
- 1910 — The Jewish Criterion (Pittsburgh), 4 February 1910: “six million BABIES SAVED BY STRAUS.”
- 1910 — “Many Jews Flee from Russia,” The New York Times, 13 March 1910: Russia’s “Jewish population of roundly 6,000,000”
- 1910 — “Russian Jews in Sad Plight,” The New York Times, 11 April 1910: “the systematic, relentless, quiet grinding down of a people of more than 6,000,000 souls,”
- 1911 — Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Vol. 2, 1911, page 145: “While there remain in Russia and Rumania over six millions of Jews who are being systematically degraded…”
- 1911 — Max Nordau speaking at the 1911 Zionist Congress. Ben Hecht, Perfidy, NY: Julian Messner, 1961, page 254: “But the same righteous Governments, who are so nobly, industriously active to establish the eternal peace, are preparing, by their own confession, complete annihilation for six million people,”
- 1911 — Fort Wayne Journal Gazette (Ind.), 4 June 1911, page 15: “PRINCE, PRIEST AND PEASANT WAGE WAR AGAINST six million JEWS”
- 1911 — The Jewish Criterion (Pittsburgh), 18 August 1911, page 14: “Very soon a fervid Russian patriotism will reign in every Ghetto, and the melting-up of the race begin. But this absorption of the five or six million Jews…”
- 1911 — Max Nordau, The Jewish Chronicle (London), 18 August 1911, page 14: “… the downfall of six million creatures… for no war has ever yet destroyed six million human lives.”
- 1911 — The Jewish Criterion (Pittsburgh), 25 August 1911: “… six million Jews are still groaning under the most terrible yoke.”
- 1911 — Max Nordau, The Jewish Criterion (Pittsburgh), 1 September 1911, page 3: “… the downfall of six million creatures… for no war has ever yet destroyed six million human lives.”
- 1911 — Max Nordau, The Reform Advocate (Chicago), 9 September 1911: “… the downfall of six million creatures… for no war has ever yet destroyed six million human lives.”
- 1911 — New York Times, 31 October 1911: “The 6,000,000 Jews of Russia are singled out for systematic oppression and for persecution due to process of law.”
- 1911 — “Condition of the Jews in Russia Worst in History,” New York Times, 10 December 1911: “The Russian Government […] is making the 6,000,000 Jews a people economically exhausted—a people without any rights at all.”
- 1912 — American Jewish Year Book 5672 (23 Sep 1911 – 11 Sep 1912), page 308: “Russia has since 1890 adopted a deliberate plan to expel or exterminate six millions of its people for no other reason than that they refuse to become members of the Greek Church, but prefer to remain Jews.”
- 1912 — The Jewish Criterion (Pittsburgh), 5 January 1912: “… more than six million Jews reside in small towns and villages, there is no Sabbath question.”
- 1912 — Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, New York Tribune, 11 September 1912, page 9: “Russia is now asphyxiating the Jews. It does not dare to offend the nations by blood spilling, so it is slowly, but surely grinding out the lives of 6,000,000 Jews.”
- 1913 — Fort Wayne Journal Gazette (Ind.), 18 October 1913, page 4: “There are six million Jews in Russia and the government is anxious to annihilate them by methods that provoke protests from the civilized world.”
- 1914 — The Jewish Criterion (Pittsburgh), 10 July 1914, page 9: “… where six million Jews are suffering…”
- 1914 — New York Times, 2 December 1914, page 12: “APPEAL FOR AID FOR JEWS. … the plight of more than 6,000,000 Jews… upon the Jewish people, more than nine millions of whom live in the countries at war and over six million of these in the actual war zone in Poland, Galicia and the whole of the Russian frontier.”
- 1915 — New York Times, 14 January 1915, page 3: “In the world today there are about 13,000,000 Jews, of whom more than 6,000,000 are in the heart of the war zone; Jews whose lives are at stake and who today are subjected to every manner of suffering and sorrow…”
- 1915 — The Jewish Criterion (Pittsburgh), 19 March 1915: “How the casting of six million people into the deepest abyss of servitude and outlawry is to relieve tension we cannot understand.”
- 1915 — The Sun (N.Y.), 6 June 1915, section 5, page 1: “six million Jews, one-half of the Jewish people throughout the world, are being persecuted, hounded, humiliated, tortured, starved. … six million Jews in Russia… are being tortured so mercilessly.”
- 1915 — The Jewish Criterion (Pittsburgh), 25 June 1915: “The annihilation of the six million Jews now congregated in the Russian domains goes on in a well-defined and systematic manner.”
- 1915 — Jacob de Hass, The Boston Sunday Globe, 26 September 1915, page 46: “Indeed, the only point that all warring elements are agreed upon is that at the end of the holocaust the Jews and Palestine will be more closely related than at present.”
- 1915 — New York Tribune, 14 October 1915: “What the Turks are doing to Armenians is child’s play compared to what Russia is doing to six million Jews, her own subjects.”
- 1915 — The Mercury, 4 December 1915: “… six millions of Russian and Polish Jews are to-day the most pitiable victims of that race hatred and that race fanaticism which have been the creed of Germany…”
- 1916 — The Jews in the Eastern War Zone, The American Jewish Committee (ed.), 1916, pages 19f., 29, 47, 60, 66: “… where six million human beings guilty only of adherence to the Jewish faith are compelled to live out their lives in squalor and misery, in constant terror of massacre… estimated at six million or more… of these six million people… a kind of prison with six million inmates… The persons most affected, the six million Jews of Russia… The Jews are loyal and brave, and it is most inadvisable to pursue a policy which might convert six million subjects into enemies.… the six million Jews of Russia still continued… nearly three of the six million…”
- 1916 — Sausalito News (CA), 22 January 1916, page 1: “… six million starving Polish Jews in the war stricken countries of Europe”
- 1916 — Oakland Tribune (Cal.), 26+27 January 1916, page 1 (FRONT PAGE ADVERT 2 DAYS RUNNING): “The President of the United States—6,000,000 Starving, Homeless, People—Why should the President, by proclamation to the people of the nation, fix upon January 27th as the day for contributing towards the relief of over six million Jews located in the Far Eastern War Zone?”
- 1916 — The Tacoma Times, 28 February 1916: “… there were 6,000,000 Jews in Europe absolutely without food or resources.”
- 1916 — New York Times, 28 February 1916: “Nearly six million Jews are ruined in the greatest moral and material misery; millions of them are refugees, dependent upon the good will of their brethren.” Kalamazoo Gazette (Kalamazoo, MI), Wednesday, 1 March 1916, page 1: “WAR MAY MOVE 6,000,000 JEWS … Nearly six million Jews are ruined.”
- 1916 — The Jewish Criterion (Pittsburgh), 3 March 1916, page 6: “Position of the Jews in Russia. The Jews in Russia, numbering about six million, are denied full political and civil rights and are economically oppressed.”
- 1916 — New York Herald, 5 March 1916, Section III, page 10: “six million Jews, old men, women and little children, are suffering from the greatest calamity that has befallen Israel since the Egyptian bondage.”
- 1916 — North Devon Journal, 9 March 1916, page 7: “In Poland, in Southern and Western Russia, six million Jews resided when the War broke out. They lived there in the Pale of Settlement, in poverty, and were terribly overcrowded.”
- 1916 — Fort Wayne Journal Gazette (Ind.), 12 March 1916, page 34: “… six million Jews reported starving in the warring countries.”
- 1916 — El Paso Herald, 22 April 1916, page 5: “six million Jews Are Deprived Of Papers By Russian Censorship. … six million Jews have been robbed of their newspapers.”
- 1916 — The Jewish Criterion (Pittsburgh), 4 August 1916: “… six million Jews …”
- 1917 — Corsicana Daily Sun, 16 February 1917, page 2: “six million Jews are living in lands where they are oppressed, exploited, crushed and robbed of every inalienable human right.”
- 1918 — Fort Wayne News and Sentinel (Ind.), 22 June 1918, page 1: “In the war zone of Europe there are six million Jews who have been the war’s worst sufferers, …”
- 1918 — The Columbus Jewish Chronicle, 28 June 1918, page 1: “Claims Palestine Has Room For six million… It is quite possible for Palestine to find room for five to six millions… 800,000 hectares will suffice to produce the food of six millions of people, …”
- 1918 — The Bakersfield Californian, 30 July 1918, page 4: “… the six million starving Jews in Poland, Galicia and other stricken Eastern provinces…”
- 1918 — The Jewish Criterion (Pittsburgh), 5 September 1918: “… Russia, where the bulk of the Jewish people to the number of well over six million still dwell, is a land of blood and midnight darkness.”
- 1918 — The Columbus Jewish Chronicle, 13 September 1918, page 1: “The report describes the havoc the war has caused among the six million Jews of Russia. Driven by the invading armies, the Jews have been compelled to flee from their homes;”
- 1918 — New York Times, 18 October 1918, page 12: “six million Souls Will Need Help to Resume Normal Life When War Is Ended. … Committee of American Jews Lays Plans for the Greatest Humanitarian Task in History. … 6,000,000 Jews Need Help.”
- 1919 — The Bourbon News, 1 April 1919, page 4: “… six million Jews in Poland, Lithuania, Galicia, Palestine, Turkey, and Siberia who are dying of starvation, …”
- 1919 — The Corsicana Daily Sun, 3 April 1919, page 5: “six million ARE STARVING … It is estimated that there are six million Jewish women, children and aged men actually starving to death.”
- 1919 — The Galveston Daily News, 4 April 1919, page 3: “six million Jews in Poland, Lithuania, Galicia, Palestine, Turkey, and Siberia are dying of starvation. … These six million despairing souls are totally dependent on American generosity for the bare necessities of life.”
- 1919 — The Watchman and Southron, 5 April 1919: “six million Jews in Poland, Lithuania, Galicia, Palestine, Turkey, and Siberia are dying of starvation. … These six million despairing souls are totally dependent on American generosity for the bare necessities of life.”
- 1919 — The Galveston Daily News, 5 April 1919, page 5: “six million Jews are dying of starvation.”
- 1919 — The Galveston Daily News, 6 April 1919, page 8: “The American Jewish Relief Committee is endeavouring to save from starvation six million Jews who are the helpless victims of the German terror.”
- 1919 — El Paso Herald, 7 April 1919: “… to save from starvation six million Jews who are the helpless victims of the German Terror.”
- 1919 — San Antonio Express, 8 April 1919, page 15: “The American Jewish Relief Committee is endeavouring to save from starvation six million Jews who are the helpless victims of the German terror.”
- 1919 — The Corsicana Daily Sun, 9 April 1919, page 8: “THE AMERICAN JEWISH RELIEF COMMITTEE IS ENDEAVOURING TO SAVE FROM STARVATION six million JEWS WHO ARE THE HELPLESS VICTIMS OF THE GERMAN TERROR”
- 1919 — San Antonio Express, 9 April 1919, page 12: “At no other time in the history of the Jewish people has the need been so great as now. six million of our brothers and sisters are dying of starvation. The entire race is threatened with extinction.”
- 1919 — Daily Kentucky New Era, Wednesday, 9 April 1919, pages 4f.: “The American Jewish Relief Committee is endeavouring to save from starvation six million Jews who are the helpless victims of the German Terror.”
- 1919 — The Wellington Leader (Tex.), 11 April 1919, page 1: “We wish to call the attention of our people to the great drive that is on to raise funds for the relief of the six million Jews who are starving in the war ridden districts of the east.”
- 1919 — The Corsicana, Semi-Weekly Light, 11 April 1919, page 5: “THE AMERICAN JEWISH RELIEF COMMITTEE IS ENDEAVOURING TO SAVE FROM STARVATION six million JEWS WHO ARE THE HELPLESS VICTIMS OF THE GERMAN TERROR”
- 1919 — The Daily Courier (Pa.), 4 August 1919, section 2, page 1: “APPEALS TO AMERICA TO ACT QUICKLY IF LIVES OF SOME six million JEWS ARE TO BE SAVED… The lives of some six million people are at stake.”
- 1919 — The Fulton Patriot, 3 September 1919, page 4: “WORLD JEWRY AT GREATEST CRISIS Leaders in America Striving to Save Race in Europe From Destruction. … All told, many million Christians and more than 6,000,000 Jews in countries other than the United States are being directly aided by American Jewish relief funds.”
- 1919 — New York Times, 8 September 1919, page 6: “127,000 Jews Have Been Killed and 6,000,000 Are in Peril. … 6,000,000 souls in Ukrainian and in Poland have received notice through action and by word that they are going to be completely exterminated — this fact stands before the whole world as the paramount issue of the present day.”
- 1919 — The Fort Wayne News and Sentinel, 17 September 1919, section 2, page 1: “… six million Jews are dying of starvation and where vast numbers of them—innocent victims of the ravages of war—wander homeless, and in rags.”
- 1919 — Trenton Evening Times (Trenton, N.J.), 28 September 1919, page 4: “six million Jews Reported Destitute in Eastern Europe.”
- 1919 — Rushville Daily Republican, 29 September 1919, page 4: “The thought that as I walk the streets of this prosperous and happy town there are 6,000,000 people in other lands without food, shelter, or raiment is disturbing. … When I read, as I have read all my life, of the persecution and slaughter of the Jews I am not proud of my own race or my religion. … six million people perishing!”
- 1919 — Tipton Tribune, 29 September 1919, page 2: “The thought that as I walk the streets of this prosperous and happy town there are 6,000,000 people in other lands without food, shelter, or raiment is disturbing. … When I read, as I have read all my life, of the persecution and slaughter of the Jews I am not proud of my own race or my religion. … six million people perishing!”
- 1919 — Fort Wayne Journal Gazette, 1 October 1919, page 4: “The thought that as I walk the streets of this prosperous and happy town there are 6,000,000 people in other lands without food, shelter or raiment is disturbing. … When I read, as I have read all my life, of the persecution and slaughter of the Jews I am not proud of my own race or my religion. … six million people perishing!”
- 1919 — The Washington Democrat, 2 October 1919, page 1: “The thought that as I walk the streets of this prosperous and happy town there are 6,000,000 people in other lands without food, shelter or raiment is disturbing. … When I read, as I have read all my life, of the persecution and slaughter of the Jews I am not proud of my own race or my religion. … six million people perishing!”
- 1919 — The Colorado Springs Gazette, 2 October 1919: “six million JEWS FORM DAILY IN A BREAD LINE … six million Jews, men, women and children, a number as great as the population of the state of Illinois including Chicago, form the bread line in Europe every day.”
- 1919 — Janesville Daily Gazette (Wis.), 4 October 1919, page 4: “… the Feast Day of Rosh Hashonah. It was not a feast day for some six million starving Jews of Europe because every day for the past four years has been a fast day for them. … the five-year fast that has been the lot of the 6,000,000 Jews in Europe.”
- 1919 — Sheboygan Press (Wis.), 4 October 1919, page 2: “… the Feast Day of Rosh Hashonah. It was not a feast day for some six million starving Jews of Europe because every day for the past four years has been a fast day for them. … the five-year fast that has been the lot of the 6,000,000 Jews in Europe.”
- 1919 — The Pittsburgh Gazette Times — 5 October 1919, section 6, page 16: “Still they live—these 6,000,000 helpless, starving, homeless people … JEWISH WAR RELIEF COMMITTEE” — The Fort Wayne Journal-Gazette (Ind.), 6 October 1919, page 3: “With six million of their population in absolute want, they are unable alone to render sufficient aid… There are to-day to be found in the ten provinces of Russia, Poland and the fifteen provinces called the ‘Pale of Settlement’ six millions of these peaceful and law-abiding people… We do not see with our eyes the evidences of want and degradation into which six million Jews have been thrown suddenly through no fault of their own.”
- 1919 — Indiana Weekly Messenger, 9 October 1919, page 1 & 4: “Life for six millions in the shadow of death! … six millions mean what? … six million souls, old men, old women, and little children in Poland, Lithuania, Russia, Palestine, Galicia, Turkey, Syria, Romania, Greece, and Bulgaria are in imminent danger of starving to death this winter. … The responsibility of maintaining life in these six million sufferers rests upon every man and woman in the United States… Helping the Jews in their extremity is not helping the Bolsheviks,” the speaker emphatically declared.”
- 1919 — Schenectady Gazette, 16 October 1919, page 15: “Today 6,000,000 Jews Are Facing the Darkest Days Ever Known in the Long History of the Race.”
- 1919 — Titusville Herald, 18 October 1919, page 4: “… Jewish Relief Fund… Contribute Today, the Last Day and Help Save From Death six millions of Starving People.”
- 1919 — San Francisco Chronicle, 19 October 1919, page 18: “6,000,000 JEWS IN BREAD LINE, STRAUS WRITES. More Than Third of Entire Race in World Reduced to Despair in Europe. … six million Jews, out of the 16,000,000 in the world…”
- 1919 — Cape Vincent Eagle, 23 October 1919: “… there are six million people in other lands without food, shelter or raiment is disturbing. … When read, as I have read all my life, of the persecution and slaughter of the Jews I am not proud of my own race or of my religion.”
- 1919 — Martin H. Glynn, “The Crucifixion of Jews Must Stop!” The American Hebrew, 31 October 1919, page 582: “From across the sea six million men and women call to us for help … Within them reside the illimitable possibilities for the advancement of the human race as naturally would reside in six million human beings. … In this catastrophe, when six million human beings are being whirled toward the grave by a cruel and relentless fate, only the most idealistic promptings of human nature should sway the heart and move the hand. six million men and women are dying from lack of the necessaries of life […] bigoted lust for Jewish blood. In this threatened holocaust of human life in the name of the humanity of Moses to six million famished men and women. six million men and women are dying … six million Jewish men and women are starving across the seas …”
- 1919 — The Evening Tribune, Providence, 31 October 1919, page 11: “In the midst of our campaign for the relief of the six million Jews of Eastern Europe…”
- 1919 — The Record (Johnson City, N.Y.), 1 November 1919, page 8: “There are 6,000,000 Jews in Eastern Europe whom the war has left dependent upon America for aid.”
- 1919 — Beatrice Daily Sun (Neb.), 8 November 1919, page 2: “The territory which Mr. Hoover visited is but a part of that in which 6,000,000 Jews, suffers of war and war’s equally horrible aftermath, stand helpless today, … The Need: six million STARVING SOULS. six million Jews in Poland, Lithuania, Galicia, Palestine, Turkey and Siberia are dying of starvation. … These six million despairing souls are totally dependent on American generosity for the bare necessities of life. The Object: $35,000,000 for 6,000,000 LIVES”
- 1919 — Lebanon Daily News (Pa.), 11 November 1919, page 2: “DISEASE AND STARVATION IN POLAND Lieut. Wright Tells of Half Starved People Clad in Rags BREAD OUT OF LEAVES Says 6,000,000 Face Death This Winter Unless Given Immediate Relief… 6,000,000 Face Death… six million Jews in Eastern Europe face death during the coming winter, …”
- 1919 — Felix M. Warburg, New York Times, 12 November 1919: “The Jews were the worst sufferers in the war. The successive blows of contending armies have all but broken the back of European Jewry and have reduced to tragically unbelievable poverty, starvation, and disease about 6,000,000 souls, or half the Jewish population of the earth.”
- 1919 — Gouverneur Free Press, 12 November 1919: “six million Men and Women Are Dying… Won’t You Help Them? … From across the sea six million men and women call to us for help… in six million human beings… In this catastrophe, when six million human beings are being whirled toward the grave by a cruel and relentless fate… six million men and women are dying… six million men and women are dying… Because of this war for Democracy, six million Jewish men and women are starving across the seas… six million men and women of the race that helped do the greatest of the world’s work are falling into the grave! … six million famished men and women now turn mute eyes of appeal…”
- 1919 — Chester Times (Pa.), 28 November 1919, page 15: “There are 6,000,000 Jews in Eastern Europe whom the war has left dependent upon us for aid.”
- 1919 — Ironwood News Record (Mich.), 6 December 1919, page 9: “For First Time in History of Race, Jews Are Asking Others For Help. … They are doing it because six million Jews in eastern and central Europe are actually in need of food at this moment. … The problem of 6,000,000 starving men, women and little children ought to be the problem of all humanity.”
- 1919 — Lima News (Ohio), 24 December 1919, page 3: “Today six million Jews Are Facing the Darkest Days Ever Known In the History of the Race.”
- 1919 — The Toledo News-Bee, 27 December 1919: “six million Human Beings Are Suffering the Tortures of Disease, Hunger and Death… American Jewish Relief Committee”
- 1920 — Van Wert Daily Bulletin (Ohio), 5 January 1920, page 3: “… Jewish relief work in Europe and Asia. There are six million Jews in the two continents who because of the war have been made destitute.”
- 1920 — Manti Messenger (Utah), 19 March 1920: “Just now some six million of Jews, eight hundred thousand of them just children, are in imminent danger of starvation in Eastern Europe."
- 1920 — Tulsa Daily World, 11 April 1920, section B, page 14: “Today 6,000,000 Jews Are Facing the Darkest Days Ever Known in the Long History of the Race”
- 1920 — Utica Herald-Dispatch, 20 April 1920, page 9: “Today 6,000,000 Jews Are Facing the Darkest Days Ever Known in the Long History of the Race.”
- 1920 — New York Times, 1 May 1920, page 8: “Just Another Drive, but the Lives of 6,000,000 Human Beings Wait Upon the Answer.”
- 1920 — New York Times, 2 May 1920, page 1: “… six million human beings, without food, shelter, clothing or medical treatment.”
- 1920 — New York Times, 3 May 1920, page 11: “Your help is needed to save the lives of six million people in Eastern and Central Europe.”
- 1920 — New York Times, 5 May 1920, page 9: “… to save six million men and women in Eastern Europe from extermination by hunger and disease.”
- 1920 — New York Times, 5 May 1920, page 19: “six million starving, fever-stricken sufferers in war-torn Europe appeal to us.”
- 1920 — New York Times, 7 May 1920: “… Jewish war sufferers in Central and Eastern Europe where six millions face horrifying conditions of famine, disease and death.”
- 1920 — A poster tied to a lamppost in a photograph in the 1 June 1920 edition (Vol. 1, No. 3) of Jewish Relief News: “JEWISH WAR RELIEF CAMPAIGN (—) MAY 2 TO 9 (—) six million STARVING SOULS”
- 1920 — Montgomery Advertiser (Montgomery, AL), 29 June 1920, page 5: “Must They Pay the Price? Victims of the War—In the Path of Five Armies […] six million Jews have been pillaged, plundered, maltreated, driven about the country like cattle.”
- 1920 — Ogden Standard Examiner, 8 August 1920, page 9: “PUSH DRIVE FOR JEWISH RELIEF … Mr. Bond declared today that there are six million Jews/ [sic] in eastern and Central Europe whom the war has left dependent upon America.”
- 1920 — The Ogden Standard-Examiner, 20 August 1920: “… there are six million Jews in eastern and Central Europe whom the war has left dependent upon America.”
- 1920 — New York Tribune, 29 August 1920: “six million Jews were made homeless by five years of foreign and domestic wars.”
- 1920 — Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 29 August 1920: “six million Jews had been made homeless, starving, naked and plague ridden by five years of foreign and domestic wars that swept Poland.”
- 1921 — New York Times, 20 July 1921, page 2: “BEGS AMERICA SAVE 6,000,000 IN RUSSIA. Russia’s 6,000,000 Jews are facing extermination by massacre.” The New York Call, 2 January 2, 1922, page 2: “JEWS MEET HERE JAN. 15 TO PLAN CAMPAIGN FOR $6,000,000 FOR RELIEF”
- 1922 — Lowell Sun (Mass.), 22 March 1922, page 14: “The Jews in the immediate district for which the aid of the war sufferers’ campaign is to be given numbered over six million. … Over 300,000 orphans, over 150,000 desecrated women, over six million wandering Jews walking, crawling in their misery, feeding on the bark of trees and on herbs that grow by the wayside.”
- 1925 — Lawrence Journal-World (Kansas), 29 June 1925, page 5: “Jewish National Fund Invests Almost $6,000,000 in Palestine”
- 1926 — Encyclopaedia Britannica, 13th Edition, Vol. 1, 1926, page 145: “While there remain in Russia and Rumania over six millions of Jews who are being systematically degraded…”
- 1926 — Canadian Jewish Review, 9 April 1926, page 4: “… the extreme need of 6,000,000 Jews in Russia and Poland, …”
- 1926 — New York Times, 21 April 1926: “In Heaven’s Name, Arouse the Jews of America! New York’s Quota: $6,000,000 United Jewish Campaign of New York”
- 1930 — The Daily Times (Pa.), 15 March 1930, page 5: “Will Raise $6,000,000 for Upbuilding Palestine and to Rehabilitate Jews of Eastern Europe”
- 1931 — The Montreal Gazette, 28 December 1931, page 25: “six million JEWS FACE STARVATION. … FEARS CRISIS AT HAND. … six million Jews in Eastern Europe face starvation, and even worse, during the coming winter.”
- 1932 — Symphony of six million, movie, 29 April 1932; directed by Gregory La Cava, written by Fannie Hurst (story), J. Walter Ruben, Bernard Schubert (screenplay), starring Ricardo Cortez.
- 1933 — New York Times, 29 March 1933: The Joint Distribution Committee “is now active in relief and reconstructive work in Eastern Europe where 6,000,000 Jews are involved.”
- 1933 — New York Times, 1 June 1933, page 6: “Dr. Margoshes said he had received a letter from the poet at Zurich a few days ago, stating that she had ‘run away from the holocaust…’”
- 1933 — The Jewish Western Bulletin, 21 September 1933: “At this period of human persecution and of human destruction, when life, especially Jewish life has ceased to be of any value in the cruel land of bloody Germany, when the lives of hundreds of thousands are tortured and hang in the balance — during this holocaust…”
- 1935 — New York Times, 8 September 1935, page 26: “The preliminary session of the first world conference of the Federation of Polish Jews being attended by sixty delegates from eighteen countries representing 6,000,000 Jews…”
- 1936 — Kabbalist & Zionist Jacob de Hass, B’nai B’rith Magazine The National Jewish Monthly, Volume 50, Number 6, March 1936.: “six million Jews are affected by this omnipresent fear (‘of another world war’)”
- 1936 — Chaim Weizmann, Reden und Aufsätze 1901-1936, Jüd. Bucherverlag Erwin Löwe, Berlin 1937, page 272-4: “It is no exaggeration to say that six million Jews are sentenced to be imprisoned in this part of the world, where they are unwanted, and for whom the countries are divided into those, where they are unwanted, and those, where they are not admitted. … It is ultimately the fate of six million people!”
- 1936 — New York Times, 31 May 1936, page 14: “AMERICANS APPEAL FOR JEWISH REFUGE.” The petition, in expressing the opinion of enlightened Christian leadership in the United States, favouring a larger Jewish immigration into Palestine, stressed the intolerable sufferings of the millions of Jews/mark> in “the European holocaust. … to save these unfortunate millions from total annihilation…”
- 1936 — The Jewish Western Bulletin, 2 June 1936, page 3: “Great Britain has it within her power to throw open the gates of Palestine and let in the victimized and persecuted Jews escaping from the European holocaust.”
- 1936 — The Montreal Gazette, 8 August 1936, page 5: “Delegates of 32 Nations Represent six million Hebrews.”
- 1936 — Chaim Weizmann, speech before the Peel Commission on Palestine, King David Hotel in Jerusalem, November 25, 1936: “If one goes further afield (in Europe), and takes the Jewries of Rumania, Latvia, Lithuania, Austria, ones see practically the same picture, and it is no exaggeration on my part to say that today six million — I am not speaking of the Jews in Persia and Morocco and such places, who are very inarticulate, one hears very little of them — in that part of the world are doomed to be pent up in places where they are not wanted, … These six million people to whom I have referred are condemned to live from hand to mouth. … it affects the fate of six million people.”
- 1936 — Chaim Weizmann, The (London) Times, 26 November 1936: “While in Western Europe many individual Jews had happy homes, in Eastern Europe there were 6,000,000 unwanted unfortunates who were condemned to be penned up in places where they could not live. … the presence of these 6,000,000 people without a future whose condition was a threat to Europe.”
- 1936 — Chaim Weizmann, The Jewish Western Bulletin, 11 December 1936, page 3: “… where six million Jews are in a position which is neither life nor death.”
- 1936 — New York Post, 11 December 1936, page 19: “JEWISH RELIEF BOARD TO HEAR LEHMAN SUDAY Gathering to consider the crisis confronting 6,000,000 Jews in Central and Eastern Europe, …”
- 1937 — Fitchburg Sentinel, 17 February 1937, page 1 & 11: “Stating that “6,000,000 Jews in Central Europe have neither life nor death because of extreme persecution,” Mrs Emanuel Halpern of New York City, member of the national board of Hadassah urged… Today there are 6,000,000 million (sic) Jews in Central Europe who have neither life nor death.”
- 1937 — The Jewish Criterion, 3 September 1937: “the position of the six million Jews of Central and Eastern Europe with whose existence the J.D.C.” was “so vitally concerned.”
- 1937 — Albany Evening News (NY), 27 May 1937, page 6.: “The plight of six million Jews in Europe is an outstanding indictment against the ruthlessness of dictatorships that have seen fit to utilize uncivilized and thoroughly un-Christian methods in the persecution of minorities, in order to gain their personal and selfish attainments. It is our duty to try to alleviate the perilous conditions of the youth in Germany and Poland, and it is the duty of every Jew to assist in raising the quota that is allotted to use [recte: us].”
- 1937 — Chaim Weizmann speech (4 August 37) at the World Zionist Conference, Switzerland, The Manchester Guardian (UK), 9 August 1937, page 13: “I told the Royal Commission [on Palestine, Nov 25, 1936] that the hopes of 6,000,000 Jews are centred on emigration. Then I was asked: ‘But can you bring 6,000,000 to Palestine?’ I replied: ‘No. I am acquainted with the laws of physics and chemistry, and I know the force of material factors. In our generation I divide the figure by three, and you can see in that the depth of the Jewish tragedy—two million youth, with their lives before them, who have lost the most elementary of rights, the right to work.’ The old ones will pass, they will bear their fate or they will not. They are dust, economic and moral dust in a cruel world.”
- 1937 — The Jewish Western Bulletin, 31 December 1937: “The number six million is often used to describe the Jewish population of Central and Eastern Europe.”
- 1938 — New York Times, 9 January 1938, page 12: “PERSECUTED JEWS SEEN ON INCREASE. 6,000,000 VICTIMS NOTED. … Five to six million in all are today the victims of governmental anti-Semitism…”
- 1938 — New York Times, 23 February 1938, page 23: “A depressing picture of 6,000,000 Jews in Central Europe deprived of protection or economic opportunities, slowly dying of starvation, all hope gone… Now anti-Semitism has spread to thirteen European nations, and threatens the very existence of millions of Jews.”
- 1938 – Sunday Times-Advertiser (Trenton, N.J.), 20 March 1938: “The simple fact is that the fate of six million Jews in Poland, Roumania, Germany and Austria hangs in the balance.”
- 1938 — The Jewish Criterion (Pittsburgh), 1 April 1938, page 15: “I shall not comment upon the first except to remind you that six million Jews in Europe are struggling between life and death.”
- 1938 — The Guardian, 4 April 1938, page 11: “six million Jews at this moment are trapped like rats…”
- 1938 — New York Times, 2 May 1938: “The rising tide of anti-Semitism in Europe today, which has deprived more than 6,000,000 Jews and non-Aryans of a birthright…”
- 1938 — Jacob Lestshinsky, “The Jews of Central Europe,” in Jewish Frontier, Vol. 5, No. 6, June 1938, page 13: “EVERY NATION is morally compelled to face the bitter truth. This article is written not with the intent of bewailing our plight, but in order to arrive at a factual calculation of the status of six million Jews in Central and Eastern Europe and of the prospects that exist in the lands of immigration.”
- 1938 — Port Arthur News, 9 June 1938, page 1: “It is estimated that nearly six million Jews have been driven from their homes by ruthless oppressors and stripped not only of their property but their right to work for a living.”
- 1938 — Rochester Democrat and Chronicle, 16 June 1938, page 18: “Judge Lewis urged American members of the race to swing moral and financial powers into the channels of evacuating some 6,000,000 Jews to Palestine.”
- 1938 — Turtle Mountain Star, Rolla, North Dakota, 6 October 1938: “Five or six million Jews, uprooted by dictatorship and tossed about by economic storms, may have to depend upon the development of the Holy Land, under British mandate, as a solution to their difficulties. But they face the hostility of the Arabs living there, whose economic and religious interests conflict with theirs. … protects the settlers from the raiding Arabs. … The Arabs Are Coming! … The dreaded Mohammedan raiders have been sighted by a neighbour settler…”
- 1938 — The Times, 22 November 1938: “Mass emigration of Jews to Palestine for two years and the formation of a Jewish national assembly was advocated by Sir John Haslam, M.P., in a message which he sent to a public meeting at the Kingsway Hall last night held by the New Zionist Organization. The message stated that the problem now involved some 6,000,000 Jews.”
- 1939 — New York Times, 15 January 1939, page 27: “Rabbi Silver wanted assistance to Jewish emigration safeguarded so that European governments would realize that ‘it is impossible to evacuate 6,000,000 Jews.’”
- 1939 — The Binghampton Press, 18 January 1939, page 8: “IRISH PLEA — Deputy Robert Briscoe, only Jewish member of the Irish Parliament, arrives in New York City to begin a campaign to enlist Americans in a plan for resettling approximately 6,000,000 Jews in Palestine.”
- 1939 — The Canadian Jewish Chronicle, 27 January 1939: “Only six million Jews remain at the moment safe. But they will have to carry the burden.”
- 1939 — The Daily Sentinel (Rome, N.Y.), 31 January 1939, page 11: “Does Mr. X really believe that if Hitler gains control of Spain with the help of Franco, that life in Spain will be any different than it is today in Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia where 6,000,000 Jews have been murdered, …”
- 1939 — Chaim Weizmann, The Palestine Post, 14 February 1939: “The fate of six million people was in balance…”
- 1939 — The Jewish Criterion, 17 February 1939, page 20: “The fate of six million people is in the balance. … They supported their stand with a declaration that Jews never needed unrestricted immigration to Palestine as much as at present, with 6,000,000 Jewish refugees seeking a haven.”
- 1939 — The Evening Independent, 22 February 1939, page 1: “6,000,000 Helpless. … there are six million Jews in Europe today, fighting desperately against intolerance and despair. For them, the support of the united appeal is crucial.”
- 1939 — The Jewish Western Bulletin, 3 March 1939: “six million JEWS OVERSEAS FACING PERSECUTION, DISCRIMINATION AND ECONOMIC RUIN …”
- 1939 –The Advocate: America’s Jewish Journal. Vols. 95-98, 17 March 1939, page 47: “If the six million Jews that constitute the European scene were removed from the lands where they now dwell, the forces of brutality and ruthlessness would still continue to operate.”
- 1939 — The Jewish Criterion, 7 April 1939, page 4: “Not in Hitler’s Hands, In Yours… The Fate Of six million European Jews”
- 1939 — The Jewish Criterion, 7 April 1939, page 33: “… six million Jewish people who are in dire need today.”
- 1939 — The Jewish Criterion, 14 April 1939, page 4: “Recent events in Central Europe have brought to 6,000,000 the total number of Jews in Central and Eastern European countries affected by anti-Semitic activities.”
- 1939 — The Jewish Criterion, 14 April 1939, page 6: "… whether our 6,000,000 fellow countrymen will live or die… More than a million refugees, starving, tortured, fear-dazed, have been dragged from their homes, separated from their families, expelled from their countries. Five million more, await with horror the moment this misery will strike them…"
- 1939 – Chester Times (Pa.), 20 April 1939, page 6: "six million Jews are the stepchildren of fate in Europe today."
- 1939 – The Jewish Criterion, 21 April 1939, page 15: "… the distress and suffering of 6,000,000 Jews in Europe. … HAVE YOU DONE YOUR DUTY? THE UNITED JEWISH FUND NEEDS YOUR HELP FOR THE HELPLESS 6,000,000 IN EUROPE
- 1939 – The Jewish Criterion, 28 April 1939, page 3: "… 6,000,000 fellow Jews who are in distress today."
- 1939 – The Niagara Falls Gazette, 1 May 1939, page 15: "ITHACA RABBI SAYS FREE JEWS MUST AID HARASSED BRETHREN six million Jews Are Refugees, Members of B’nai B’rith Lodges Told. Three-eights of the world’s Jewish population of 16,000,000 persons, or approximately 6,000,000 persons, are potential refugees. ... Rabbi Fischoff declared that the 6,000,000 Jews or Christians of Jewish extraction are in real of imminent danger due to the spread of totalitarianism in the world."
- 1939 – The Jewish Criterion, 5 May 1939, page 9: "PLIGHT OF 6,000,000 ... The 6,000,000 European Jews ..."
- 1939 – The Jewish Criterion, 12 May 1939, page 7: "The year of 1939 is the year of the most critical struggle of 6,000,000 European Jews."
- 1939 – Western Morning News (Devon, UK), 8 June 1939, page 6: "PLIGHT OF THE UNWANTED ... A little more than a month ago Lord Winterton, chairman of the Evian Committee, declared that the potential problem concerned five or six million Jews."
- 1939 – Ohio Jewish Chronicle, 30 June 1939, page 1: "The crisis which Jews of Europe are facing today envelops far more than six million souls."
- 1939 – Contemporary Jewish Record, Vol. 2, No. 5, September-October 1939, page 3 (Published by the American Jewish Committee): "... the coming war would be the annihilation of the six million Jews in East and Central Europe."
- 1939 – The Sentinel (Chicago, IL), 12 October 1939.: "... the coming war would be the annihilation of the six million Jews in East and Central Europe."
- 1939 – The Jewish Criterion, 13 October 1939, page 2: "… the coming war would be the annihilation of the six million Jews in East and Central Europe."
- 1939 – Samuel Broncheck, Syracuse Herald-Journal, 30 October 1939, page 15: "... in Poland alone there are 6,000,000 Jews who are now subject to Hitler’s persecution or Stalin’s ‘communizing.’"
- 1939 – The Southern Israelite, 28 November 1939: "... the coming war would be the annihilation of the six million Jews in East and Central Europe."
- 1940 – Mason City Globe Gazette (Iowa), 20 January 1940, page 16: "Mr. Tannenbaum stressed that Palestine offered the only solution to the six million Jews who are homeless, starving, and sick in central and Eastern Europe today."
- 1940 – The Southern Israelite, 3 May 1940: "Almost six million Jews find themselves on the brink of starvation and extermination. Their only hope is the help which the Jews of America can extend to them. The success of the United Jewish Appeal will determine their fate."
- 1940 – Robert W. Schiff, Ohio Jewish Chronicle, 17 May 1940, page 1: "Over six million Jews in Central and Eastern Europe are faced with great danger of annihilation as the result of the sweep of war and oppression."
- 1940 – New York Times, 25 June 1940, page 4: "six million Jews in Europe are doomed to destruction, if the victory of Nazis should be final. … The chances for mass emigration and resettlement of European Jewry seem to be remote, and European Jews face the danger of physical annihilation. Even the 4,000,000 Jews under Soviet rule, although free from racial discrimination, are not safe in the event of a final Nazi victory."
- 1940 – Joplin News Herald (Missouri), 25 June 1940, page 3: "six million Jews in Europe are doomed to destruction."
- 1940 – The Palm Beach Post, 25 June 1940: "Dr. Nahum Goldmann […] said today that if the Nazis should achieve final victory ‘6,000,000 Jews in Europe are doomed to destruction."
- 1940 – Ohio Jewish Chronicle, 28 June 1940, page 1: "The lives of six million Jews have been uprooted by the psychopathic, political ambitions of totalitarian leaders."
- 1940 – The Palestine Post, 1 July 1940, page 6: "Nor must we despair that six million Jews will forever lose trace of their historic heritage."
- 1940 – The Jewish Criterion, 15 November 1940: "J.N.F. to Raise $6,000,000 for Palestine During Coming Year. ... the Jewish National Fund of America voted to raise $6,000,000 for the holy land’s war needs during the coming year."
- 1941 – Salt Lake Tribune, 5 February 1941, page 2: "Nazis Prepare Blueprint Of All World Enslaved ... Later, the survivors will all be sent to whatever ‘reservation’ the Nazis finally decide to set up—all six million of Europe’s Jews."
- 1941 – New York Times, 2 October 1941: "... as to avoid the likelihood of another holocaust."
- 1941 – The Jewish Criterion, 28 November 1941: "6,000,000 Jews in Europe Look to America for Aid, Says Warburg. Fully six million Jews in Europe ..."
- 1942 – The Jewish Spectator, Volume 7, 1942, page 53: "Now, too, the unspeakable tragedy of almost six million Jews under Nazi domination is not considered sufficiently important to be discussed."
- 1942 – The Palestine Post, 1 November 1942: "The Chief Rabbi, who spoke on behalf of Empire Jewry and Jews of the United Nations, as well as of all six million Jews in Europe, said that the deliberate extinction of the whole house of Israel was being carried out by Hitler’s sadists and quislings on a scale beyond compare even in the annals of Israel."
- 1942 – New York Times, 13 December 1942, page 21: "Rabbi Israel Goldstein in Temple B’nai Jeshurun, Eighty-eighth Street, near Broadway, declared: "Authenticated reports point to 2,000,000 Jews who have already been slain by all manner of satanic barbarism, and plans for the total extermination of all Jews upon whom the Nazis can lay their hands. The slaughter of a third of the Jewish population in Hitler’s domain and the threatened slaughter of all is a holocaust without parallel."
- 1942 – The Courier-Mail (Brisbane), 19 December 1942: "GERMAN HORROR CRIMES; ALLIES PROMISE JUSTICE. Statements, issued simultaneously in London, Washington and Moscow, told of German barbarity and of proof of the Nazi determination to exterminate Jews. … Hitler’s decision to exterminate the Jews… It is estimated that there are between five and six million Jews in Occupied Europe… Nazi Slaughter House. … Hitler’s oft-repeated intention to exterminate the Jewish people in Europe."
- 1942 – Barrier Miner (Australia), 23 December 1942: "Mr. Silverman suggested that Australia and Canada could each absorb 6,000,000 Jews. … MOST ARE DOOMED… The Jewish Congress declares that 2,000,000 Jews have been exterminated so far."
- 1942 – The Massacre of a People: What the Democracies Can Do, 1943. The following article is an excerpt from "Let My People Go," a pamphlet written on Christmas Day 1942 in London: "Of the six million Jews or so who were living at the outbreak of the war in what is at present Nazi-occupied Europe, a high proportion—between one and two million—have been deliberately murdered by the Nazis and their satellites. … Unless something effective is done, within a very few months these six million Jews will all be dead, …"
- 1943 – American Zionist Emergency Council (as of 1970: American Zionist Movement) , Palestine, Volumes 1-5 (1943): "Jewish civilian casualties will be close to six million…"
- 1943 – Debates: House of Commons, official report, volume 5, Canada, 1943: "I should like to read a bit from a pamphlet entitled "Let My People Go," written by Victor Gollancz: Of the 6,000,000 Jews or so who were living at the outbreak of the war in what is at present nazi-occupied Europe, a high proportion -say between one and two million- have been deliberately murdered by the Nazis and their satellites. … within a very few months these six million Jews will all be dead…"
- 1943 – The Canberra Times, 25 January 1943: "… Jews are being subjected as part of Hitler’s plan to exterminate six million Jews in occupied Europe."
- 1943 – The (London) Times, 25 January 1943: "They note further that the extermination already carried out is part of the carrying into effect of Hitler’s oft-repeated intention to exterminate the Jewish people in Europe, which means in effect the extermination of some 6,000,000 persons in the territories over which Hitler’s rule has been extended."
- 1943 – Lowell Sun (Mass.), 26 January 1943, page 9: "Of these six million Jews, almost a third have already been massacred by Germans, Rumanians and Hungarians and the most conservative of scorekeepers estimate that before the war ends at least another third will have been done to death."
- 1943 – The Guardian, 27 January 1943, page 4: "A PROPOSAL TO SAVE THE JEWS… Some six million lives remained in imminent peril."
- 1943 – The Canadian Jewish Review, 29 January 1943, page 1: "… Hitler really intended to exterminate 6,000,000 more human beings."
- 1943 – The Zionist Review, 29 January 1943, page 3: "A statement calling on the Government to declare its readiness to co-operate in finding an immediate refuge for all Jewish refugees from death at the hands of the Nazis has been issued by the Archbishops of Canterbury (Dr. Temple), York (Dr. Garbett), and Wales (Dr. Green). ... They note, further, that the extermination already carried out is part of the carrying into effect of Hitler’s oft-repeated intention to exterminate the Jewish people in Europe, which means in effect the extermination of some 6,000,000 persons in the territories over which Hitler’s rule has been extended."
- 1943 – Hull Daily Mail, 30 January 1943, page 3: "Mr Gollancz states that of the six million Jews living at the outbreak of war in the present Nazi-dominated areas, between one and two million have been deliberately murdered."
- 1943 – Contemporary Jewish Record, Volume 6, No. 1, February 1943 (Published by the American Jewish Committee): "Suddenly, during the summer of 1942, world public opinion was shocked out of its lethargy by the realization that the Nazis had decreed the complete extinction of six million Jews and that a third of the victims had already perished."
- 1943 – Ben Hecht, Reader’s Digest, February 1943, page 108: "Of these 6,000,000 Jews almost a third have already been massacred by Germans, Rumanians and Hungarians, and the most conservative of the scorekeepers estimate that before the war ends at least another third will have been done to death."
- 1943 – Western Morning News (Devon, UK), 5 February 1943, page 2: "There are some who hold that Hitler’s set purpose is the extermination of the Jews in Occupied Europe, numbering about six millions. … We can neither accommodate six million Jews here nor dictate the attitude of other Governments."
- 1943 – New York Times, 2 March 1943: "... appalling is the fact that those who proclaim the Four Freedoms have so far done very little to secure even the freedom to live for 6,000,000 of their Jewish fellow men by readiness to rescue those who might still escape Nazi torture and butchery."
- 1943 – The Canadian Jewish Review, 14 March 1943, page 8: "Two millions of Jews have already been done to death. six millions in mid-Europe are sentenced to die."
- 1943 – Wallace R. Deuel, Cumberland Evening Times, 23 March 1943, page 1: "The Nazis set out in the beginning to destroy whole peoples. They expected to obliterate from the earth not less than 6,000,000 Jews as a beginning."
- 1943 – The Advertiser (Adelaide, Australia), 15 May 1943: "… the possibility of the complete wiping out of six million Jews if something is not immediately done to secure a harbour of refuge."
- 1943 – 21 July 1943, Ben Hecht’s show We Shall Not Die staged at the Hollywood Bowl, California: "The Germans murdered 2,000,000 Jewish civilians without trouble; the Germans are murdering the surviving 4,000,000 Jewish civilians of Europe without trouble."
- 1943 – The Yorkshire Post and Leeds Mercury, 7 December 1943, page 1.: "Hitler had pronounced a sentence of death on the 6,000,000 Jews of Europe. The Nazis had already murdered two millions by machine-gun and lethal chamber, by torture and hunger, and were now busy exterminating the third million."
- 1943 – The Canadian Jewish Review, 13 August 1943, page 8: "Two million Jews out of Europe’s six million have already been slaughtered by the Nazis; most of the remainder seem doomed, …"
- 1943 – Toledo Blade, 27 August 1943: "3,000,000 Jews Left In Europe – 5,300,000 Reported To Have Perished. Europe’s Jewish population has been reduced from 8,300,000 to 3,000,000 during the 10 years the Nazis have been in power, says the Institute of Jewish Affairs."
- 1944 – The Palestine Post, 23 January 1944: "Only a handful of Polish Jews survived the extermination. They were now either with the partisans in the forests or living as Crypto-Jews. The death toll was six million, they declared."
- 1944 – The Polish Jewish Observer (Section of The City and East London Observer), 4 February 1944, p. 1.: "6,000,000 JEWS SLAIN? THAT the [sic] appalling total of 6,000,000 Jews have been slaughtered in Poland was testified to by the two members of the Polish underground movement who have just arrived in Palestine. [...] The figure of 6,000,000 slain, it was said, included Jews deported to Poland from various European countries."
- 1944 – The Montreal Gazette, 18 March 1944, page 11: "There must be insurance that the Germans, unrepentant as they were after the last war, do not prepare another holocaust."
- 1944 – Rabbi Michael Dov Ber Weissmandl, in a letter dated May 15, 1944, addressed to the Zionist leadership in Palestine: "And you – our brothers in Palestine, in all the countries of freedom, and you, ministers of all the kingdom – how do you keep silent in the face of this great murder? Silent while thousand on thousands, reaching now to six million Jews, were murdered."
- 1944 – Rabbi Michael Dov Ber Weissmandl, 31 May 1944: "... heads of government and radio must announce what was done to our people in the slaughter house of Belzec, Malkinia (Treblinka), Sobibor, and Auschwitz. Till now six times a million Jews from Europe and Russia have been destroyed."
- 1944 – Moshe Sharett, future Israeli PM, 15 June 1944. Quoted in a telegram (same day) from the British High Commissioner of Palestine to the Colonial Secretary in London (TNA Kew, T 161/1167): "Shertok derived the impression that enemy motives were mixed, and might be all or any of the following: (a) the purely realistic object of getting various commodities from us through the only medium of exchange available; (b) hope that by obtaining some credit in our eyes for not slaughtering 2,000,000 Jews they would get away with the fact that they had slaughtered 6,000,000 Jews already;"
- 1944 – United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America Convention Proceedings, 25-29 September 1944: "WHEREAS: History records no parallel to the bestial cruelties inflicted on the Jewish people of Europe by the Nazis and their satellites, whose coldly calculated program of extermination of all European Jews very nearly succeeded, almost six million Jews having been murdered in cold blood ..."
- 1944 – Youngstown Vindicator (Ohio), 27 November 1944: "A five-volume ‘black book’ containing a documentary record of the German massacre of approximately 6,000,000 European Jews is being prepared by the state publishing house."
- 1944 – The Pittsburgh Press, 28 November 1944, page 5: "six million Jews Listed Slaughtered. A five-volume ‘black book’ containing a documentary record of the German massacre of approximately six million European Jews was being prepared today by the State publishing house. ... The work was under the general editorship of Ilya Ehrenburg and the editorial board included Poet-Playwright Konstantin Simonov, Writer Vsevold [Vsevolod] Ivanov and Poetess Vera Imber."
- 1944 – The Leader, 28 November 1944: "Russian ‘Black Book’ lists German crimes. The first volume of a five-volume Russian ‘black book’ recording the documentary form of the German massacre of approximately 6,000,000 European Jews has been completed by the Soviet state publishing house ... The five-volume work is under the general editorship of Ilya Ehrenburg, noted Soviet writer and war correspondent, with an editorial board that includes poet-playwright Kanstantin [Konstantin] Simonov, writer Vsevold [Vsevolod] Ivanov and poetess Vera Imber. Editors of the work -which will be published in both Russian and English in press runs of hundreds of thousands of copies- estimate from data now available that the Germans killed between 5,000,000 and 6,000,000 Jews in Russia, Poland and Western Europe. They believe an additional 500,000 now are being murdered in Hungary."
- 1944 – The Palestine Post, 28 November 1944: "six millionS MURDERED. The Soviet State Publishing House is preparing the publication of another "Black Book," a documentary record of the German massacre of approximately six million European Jews. … According to the Soviet editors, the Germans killed between five and six million Russian, Polish and Western European Jews, and an additional half million are being murdered in Hungary now."
- 1944 – The Jewish Criterion, 1 December 1944: "… 5,500,000 Jews have been killed in Germany and German-occupied territories since the outbreak of the war. … Yes, the Germans murdered close to six million Jews…"
- 1944 – President of the Chester Zionist Organization, Rabbi Naphtali Frishberg, Chester Times (Pa.), 2 December 1944, page 6: "With six million dead abroad, how can the Council on Judaism ..."
- 1944 – Springfield Republican (Springfield, Mass.), 4 December 1944, page 2: "6,000,000 JEWS DEAD, RESULT OF THE WAR ... The war losses of world Jewish [sic], including those killed in action, now total more than 6,000,000, Dr Nahum Goldman told members of the executive committee of the New England division of the American Jewish congress today."
- 1944 – Nahum Goldmann, Jewish Western Bulletin, 8 December 1944: "… apart from Jewish losses in combat service, 5,500,000 Jews have been killed in Germany and German-occupied tesritories [territories] since the outbreak of the awr [war]. These figures exceed the number anticipated even by the most pessimistic. … Yes, the Germans murdered close to six million Jews…"
- 1944 – Ilya Ehrenburg, Soviet War News, 22 December 1944: "In the regions they seized, Germans killed all Jews, from the old folks to infants in arms. Ask any German prisoners why his fellow countrymen annihilated six million innocent people…"
- 1945 – Ilya Ehrenburg, Soviet War News, 4 January 1945: "In regions they seized the Germans killed all the Jews from the old folk to infants in arms. Ask any German prisoner why his fellow countrymen annihilated six million innocent people and he will reply quite simply: ‘Why, they were Jews.’"
- 1945 – New York Times, 8 January 1945: "6,000,000 JEWS DEAD. The Jewish population in Europe has been reduced from 9,500,000 in 1939 to 3,500,000. Of the 6,000,000 European Jews who have died, 5,000,000 had lived in the countries under Hitler’s occupation."
- 1945 – New York Times, 11 February 1945, page 10: "1,200,000 Jews survived of the 6,000,000 who had been under German rule during the war, and that most of them were eager to come to Palestine."
- 1945 – New York Times, 17 February 1945: "Dr. Joseph Schwartz, European director of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, estimated today that 500,000 of Europe’s 6,000,000 Jews had escaped destruction by emigration and that only 1,000,000 to 1,500,000 of Europe’s 6,000,000 Jews were now left on the Continent."
- 1945 – Ilya Ehrenburg, Pravda, 1 March 1945: "The world now knows that the Germans killed six million Jews. They killed all Jews – from infants at the breast to the aged."
- 1945 – Ilya Ehrenburg, Soviet War News, 15 March 1945: "The world now knows that Germany has killed six million Jews."
- 1945 – Joseph Thon, president of the National Organization of Polish Jews in America, 22 March 1945: "I accuse the whole German people that in the years 1939 to 1945 they slaughtered upward of 15,000,000 men, among which there were 6,000,000Jews. ... The German people murdered, in cold blood, in excess of 6,000,000 European Jews, among them over 3,000,000 Polish Jews."
- 1945 – Ilya Ehrenburg, The Advertiser (Adelaide), 27 March 1945: "... the Germans tortured the last handful of Jews. The Germans killed six million Jews -all the Jews of Poland, Hungary, the Ukraine, Lithuania, Byelo-Russia, West Europe and of course Germany."
- 1945 – Army News (Darwin, Australia), 11 April 1945: "NAZIS HAVE MURDERED six million JEWS. Of a population of 16 million Jews in the world before the war, more than six million had been murdered by the Nazis."
- 1945 – New York Post, 21 April 1945, page 9: "The Nazi leaders felt they had nothing to fear. ‘They murdered six million Jews, but nothing was done. In the words of the Czech delegate to the London War Crimes Commission,’"
- 1945 – Stephen S. Wise, May 1945; Norman Finkelstein, Friends Indeed: The Special Relationship of Israel and the United States, Millbrook Press, Brookfield 1998, page 33: "The Christian world, and I include England, of course, in the Christian world, suffered six million of the people of Jesus of Nazareth to die in a most horrible manner. The Christian world owes the Jews some reparation."
- 1945 – New York Times, 2 May 1945: "... estimated that only 1,000,000 of 6,000,000 Jews in Europe in 1939 were still alive."
- 1945 – The Pittsburgh Press, 13 May 1945: "Nazis Destroy six million Jews. ... Of the eight million Jews living in Germany and German occupied countries before the war, 6,200,000 have died from either execution, cruel treatment or starvation, according to latest figures compiled by Jewish welfare organisations here."
- 1945 – New York Times, May 20 1945, page 7: "... seemingly endless streams of former ‘slaves’ from all parts of Europe and by the huge cantonments of liberated victims of Nazism. More than six million of them have been liberated ..."
- 1945 – Dr. Jacob Robinson (lawyer), 11(12) June 1945; David Irving, Nuremberg: The Last Battle, Focal Point, London 1996, pages 61f.: "How great were these losses, inquired [Robert H.] Jackson, seeking a figure to use at the coming trial. ‘six million,’ responded Dr. Robinson, and indicated that the figure included Jews in all Nazi-occupied lands ‘from the Channel to Stalingrad’ ... Jackson noted that day: ‘I was particularly interested in knowing the source and reliability of his estimate as I know no authentic data on it.’"
- 1945 – Chaim Weizmann, president of the (World) Zionist Organization, speech in London at the World Zionist Congress on August 1st, 1945. "An Answer to Mr. Bevin by Chaim Weizmann" Jewish Spectator, Vol. X, No. 5, September 1945: "The Jewish people, with its six million victims in Europe,"
- 1945 – David ben Gurion, speech in London at the World Zionist Congress on 2 August 1945. Footage viewable at criticalpast.com: "The six million slaughtered Jews."
- 1945 – The Canadian Jewish Chronicle, 3 August 1945, page 7: "This commission is gathering all materials, documents, and photographs illustrating the martyrology of Polish Jews and of the Jews of all Europe. This proves that the Germans murdered six million European Jews in Poland."
- 1945 – Alexander L. Easterman, Political Secretary of the World Jewish Congress, letter to the head of the British war crimes trials Brigadier General Henry Shapcott, 8th August 1945, in UK NA, WO 309/424, page 102B.: "As I inform you, the World Jewish Congress has been in relations with the United Nations War Crimes Commission and with various Governments on the question of the Jewish aspect of war crimes. In formal memoranda and in many discussions with these authorities, the Congress has expressed their views upon the specific character of the crimes committed against the Jews in Europe by the Nazi Government of Germany and their satellites, crimes which have culminated in the extermination, as a result of a calculated and planned conspiracy against the Jewish people, of some six million Jewish men, women and children."
- 1945 – The Canadian Jewish Review, 10 August 1945, page 1: "while the Jews, who had lost 6,000,000 victims to Nazism in Europe,"
- 1945 – The Times (London), 14 August 1945: "... some 6,000,000 men, women, and children – were put to death by the Nazis and their satellites."
- 1945 – The Evening Post (New Zealand), 21 August 1945, page 5: "Two-fifths of all Jewry-nearly 6,000,000 men, women and children-were butchered."
- 1945 – The Guardian, 5 September 1945, page 8: "Altogether, it is estimated that six million Jews have been killed."
- 1945 – The Canberra Times, 6 September 1945: "six million JEWS KILLED BY GERMANS. Throughout the war the Germans killed 6,000,000 Jews, the number left in Europe being approximately 1,600,000 ... most surviving Jews desired to emigrate to Palestine. The agency plans to send six groups of six men each to help Jews in German camps. ... It is planned to erect a monument on the summit of Mount Scopus to commemorate the Jews who died. It will bear the names of all the 6,000,000, including soldiers, partisans and ghetto fighters. All the Jewish cultural documents and religious objects left in Central and Eastern Europe are to be collected in Palestine."
- 1945 – The Evening Post (New Zealand), 6 September 1945, page 7: "The Germans killed 6,000,000 Jews during the war, said Mr. Eliahu Dobkin, head of the Jewish Agency’s immigration department, on his return to Jerusalem from Central Europe."
- 1945 – Jewish Western Bulletin, 7 September 1945, page 43: "Almost 6,000,000 Jews were wiped out during these years,"
- 1945 – Jewish Western Bulletin, 7 September 1945, page 47: "Throughout the world there is a growing indignation over the barbarism and the unspeakable cruelty of the mass murders of six million Jews by the Nazis,"
- 1945 – New York Times, 17 September 1945: "six million Jews have died as martyrs and their blood cries up from the ground."
- 1945 – Dr. Joseph Tenenbaum President of the American Federation of Polish Jews, The Jewish Criterion, 21 September 1945, page 7: "Due to German atrocities and Allied neglect six million Jews have been slaughtered."
- 1945 – American Zionist Emergency Council, New York Post, 27 September 1945: "It was our very unhappy conviction all along that the responsibility for the extinction of six million Jews in Europe was not Hitler’s alone. The Entire Christian world shares that responsibility."
- 1945 – The Canadian Jewish Review, 28 September 1945, page 8: "We mourn six million dead adults, the aged, the young and the little Jewish children. We remember them."
- 1945 – 30 September 1945. At a Zionist rally at Madison Square Gardens NYC, a huge banner approximately 50ft long and 2.5ft high, hung above the stage on which the speakers addressed the audience. The banner said: "AREN’T 6,000,000 JEWISH DEATHS ENOUGH?"
- 1945 – New York Post, 1 October 1945, page 15: "While ‘we waited patiently for the fulfilment of Great Britain’s pledges to the Jewish people,’ they said, ‘six million Jews were killed in Europe. ...’ ... Aren’t 6,000,000 Jewish Dead Enough?"
- 1945 – The Evening Post, 2 October 1945, page 7: "The 6,000,000 Jews who had been killed ..."
- 1945 – The Manhattan Zionist Club, New York Post, 3 October 1945, page 21: "For years we waited patiently for the fulfilment of Great Britain’s pledges to the Jewish people, We waited in vain. In the meantime, six million Jews were killed in Europe,"
- 1945 – The Canadian Jewish Chronicle, 5 October 1945, page 6: "You now propose to continue to keep these doors shut against our survivors, after six million of our people perished, for whose death your country [Britain] is not without blame."
- 1945 – The Chester Times, 10 October 1945: "It was our very unhappy conviction all along that the responsibility for extinction of six million Jews in Europe was not Hitler’s alone. The entire Christian world shares that responsibility."
- 1945 – The Observer, 14 October 1945, page 5: "At the entrance to its office, a large poster asks the searching question: six million Jews have been murdered—world, where is thy conscience?"
- 1945 – The Canadian Jewish Review, 26 October 1945, page 12: "They look about and behold the tragic suffering of Israel during the past decade in which six million Jews perished and they see to see Israel as a defeated nation."
- 1945 – The Observer, 2 November 1945, page 10: "The horror of the Middle Ages with all forms of torture was brought down upon European Israel with the result that six millions of Jews perished."
- 1945 – Lebanon Daily News (Pa.), 9 November 1945, page 11: "six million Jews have perished—victims of the Nazis"
- 1945 – Peter Gay, The Gateway (Uni. of Alberta), 9 November 1945, page 2: "... six million Jews have been murdered and the few remaining ones are denied a haven ..."
- 1945 – Chaim Weizmann, president of the WZO, speech on 19 November 1945, at the convention of the Zionist Organization of America in Atlantic City. "Weizmann’s Rebuke to Bevin," The Jewish Chronicle, November 30, 1945, p. 1.: "after the slaughter of six million Jews, the remnant of a million and a half implore the shelter of the Jewish homeland? What a sorry epitaph the new declaration of policy seeks to write over the graves of six million of our dead. The soil of Europe is saturated with their innocent blood."
- 1945 – The Indian Express (Madras) – 19 Nov 1945, page 4: "The world will have no peace as long as Jews have no opportunity to determine their destiny in their own land. We know from bloody experience that mass murder of six million Jews was made possible only because of their homelessness and statelessness."
If you don't believe what I've quoted maybe you should now waste hours of your time and patience looking up the endless newpaper historical archives.
Pogroms in the Russian Empire, 1821 – 1906
The term “pogrom” became commonly used in English after a large-scale wave of anti-Jewish riots swept through south-western Imperial Russia (present-day Ukraine and Poland) from 1881 to 1884; when more than 200 anti-Jewish events occurred in the Russian Empire, notably pogroms in Kiev, Warsaw, and Odessa. The trigger for the pogroms was the assassination of Tsar Alexander II by “foreign influence agents” controlled by Jews; One of the conspirators was of Jewish origins, and the Russians elaborated the importance of her role in the assassination.
Local economic conditions (such as ancestral debts owed to Jewish moneylenders) are thought to have contributed significantly to the rioting, especially with regard to the participation of the business competitors of local Jews and the participation of railroad workers. For decades after the 1881 pogroms, most government officials held beliefs that Jews in villages were more dangerous than Jews who lived in towns. The Minister of the Interior Nikolay Pavlovich Ignatyev rejected the theory that pogroms were caused by revolutionary socialists and, instead, claimed they were a protest by the rural population against Jewish exploitation.
The new Tsar Alexander III blamed revolutionaries and the Jews themselves for the riots, and in May 1882 issued the May Laws, a series of harsh restrictions on Jews. The pogroms continued for more than three years, coinciding to attempts by the Russian government to end the rioting. The pogroms and the official reaction to them led many Russian Jews to reassess their perceptions of their status within the Russian Empire, and so led to significant Jewish emigration, mostly to the United States. These pogroms were referred to among Jews as the “Storms in the South.” Changed perceptions among Russian Jews also indirectly gave a significant boost to the early Zionist movement.
In between 1903-1906 a series of pogroms affected 64 towns (including Odessa, Yekaterinoslav, Kiev, Kishinev, Simferopol, Romny, Kremenchug, Nikolayev, Chernigov, Kamenets-Podolski, Yelizavetgrad), and 626 small towns (Russian: городок) and villages, mostly in Ukraine and Bessarabia (Holodomor was revenge). The highest number of pogroms were registered in the Chernigov gubernia in northern Ukraine. The pogroms there in October 1905 took 800 Jewish lives, 400 were killed in Odessa, over 150 in Rostov-on-Don, 67 in Yekaterinoslav, 54 in Minsk, 30 in Simferopol—over 40, in Orsha—over 30.
The pogroms of the 1880s caused a worldwide outcry and, along with harsh laws, propelled mass Jewish emigration. Two million Jews fled the Russian Empire between 1880 and 1920, with many going to the United Kingdom and United States. In response, the United Kingdom introduced the Aliens Act 1905, which introduced immigration controls for the first time, a main objective being to reduce the influx of Eastern European Jews. In reaction to the pogroms and other oppressions of the Tsarist period, Jews increasingly became politically active. Jewish participation in The General Jewish Labor Bund, colloquially known as the Bund, and in the Bolshevik movements, was directly influenced by the pogroms.
Hollywood is a neighbourhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the U.S. film industry and the people associated with it. Many of its studios such as Disney, Paramount Pictures, Warner Bros., and Universal Pictures were founded there; Paramount still has its studios there. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903. It was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910, and soon thereafter a prominent film industry emerged, eventually becoming the most recognizable in the world.
The ADL (Anti-Defamation League) smoke screening “Jewish domination of Hollywood” and Jewish Moment Magazine claiming “Jews run Hollywood” when it was “Jews who created Hollywood”.
The Hollywood Sign is an American landmark and cultural icon overlooking Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. It is situated on Mount Lee, in the Hollywood Hills area of the Santa Monica Mountains. Ownership of the southern half of the valley, south of present-day Roscoe Boulevard from Toluca Lake to Woodland Hills, was purchased by Isaac Lankershim in 1869. Isaac Lankershim was born in Bavaria and was known as a Jewish Baptist (but maintained Jewish social and business ties).
The sign was erected in 1923 and originally read “HOLLYWOODLAND”. Its purpose was to advertise the name of a new segregated housing development in the hills above the Hollywood district of Los Angeles. Jewish real estate developers Woodruff and Shoults called their development “Hollywoodland” and advertised it as a “superb environment without excessive cost on the Hollywood side of the hills.”. They contracted the Crescent Sign Company to erect thirteen south-facing letters on the hillside.
The sign company owner, Thomas Fisk Goff (1890–1984), designed the sign. Each letter was 30 ft (9.1 m) wide and 50 ft (15.2 m) high, and the whole sign was studded with around 4,000 light bulbs. The sign flashed in segments: “HOLLY,” “WOOD,” and “LAND” lit up individually, and then as a whole. Below the Hollywoodland sign was a searchlight to attract more attention. The poles that supported the sign were hauled to the site by mules. The project cost $21,000, equivalent to $320,000 in 2020.
The sign, which faced near-desolation in the 1970s and was saved with donations from celebrities including Alice Cooper, Andy Williams and Hugh Hefner at $27,700 per letter. In her 1972 ballad, “Mary C. Brown and the Hollywood Sign,” singer-songwriter Dory Previn sang, “I doubt if the Statue of Liberty ever welcomed more refugees.” Recounting the tragic story of a failed actress who leapt off the Sign’s “H,” the song helped encode meaning in both this object and the industry it signified.
Historically, refugees flocked to Hollywood, particularly Jewish refugees fleeing Eastern European pogroms and congested East Coast U.S. cities. The suggestion that the Hollywood Sign’s appeal might reside in its role as a beacon to hopeful filmmakers is provocative. While Thomas Edison invented the motion picture camera, immigrant Jewish entrepreneurs (like Sam Goldwyn, Jack and Harry Warner, Louis B. Mayer) created Hollywood. Jews created the three major American television networks, William Paley's CBS, David Sarnoff's NBC and Leonard Goldenson's ABC. Today about two-thirds of leading TV and movie producers are Jewish.
British journalist William Cash wrote about Hollywood's Jewish cabal in an October 1994 issue of the British journal Spectator. The article drew strong reactions denouncing Cash and the Spectator for anti-Semitism.
William Cash writes:
Los Angeles. WHEN Mr. Mike Ovitz, or His Most Powerfulness (as he is also known here), shows up at a press conference in LA and sits in the audience, you know something big is going on: in this case the founding of a new multi-billion-dollar Hollywood studio by Steven Spielberg, record mogul billionaire David Geffen and their best friend, the recently dumped chief of Disney Studios, Jeffrey Katzenberg.
Although the Hollywood survival rate for studio start-up schemes has been poor, Francis Coppola's American Zoetrope Studios is the most notable recent casualty, this ambitious venture has been widely hailed as having more chance of success than any similar enterprise for 50 years.
Since Katzenberg is to run the company, this may seem odd: as head of Disney he was personally responsible for a disturbing proportion of some of the dullest and crassest films (Aspen Extreme, Love Trouble) of the last five years. He once told a journalist (on the record), 'Our movies are shit. '
But in one respect at least this particular combination of talents, or 'talent combo', in the local argot, will start out on the right foot. Like the old mogul founders of the early studios and unlike most other failed build-your-own studio merchants they are Jewish.
The significance of this fact cannot be simply met by the inevitable shrieks of 'anti-Semitism'. A rare glimpse of the feudal power structure of Hollywood at work was given by the Wall Street Journal's front-page report of the new studio launch. Before any contracts could be signed, a private 'blessing' was required from 81-year-old Lew Wasserman, the long-time chairman of MCA (which owns Universal) and the last surviving Jewish Founder-builder of a studio. To quote the Journal, he is treated in Hollywood 'like a tribal chieftain'.
Spielberg, Geffen, Katzenberg and Spielberg's 30-year personal mentor, MCA president Sidney Sheinberg, gathered at the house of the 'Godfather of the Show' (as Time called Wasserman). After getting his rabbinical blessing, they spoke in 'hushed, reverential tones about the industry potentate', about how he 'spun stories about the history of Hollywood and showed them artifacts'. Geffen and Katzenberg, who have no formal connections with MCA or Wassemman, were reported as being 'nervous' before the meeting.
'The whole thing could have gone sour,' said Katzenberg.
Turn now to pages 202-3 of last month's Vanity Fair and a curious 'group portrait' will grin back at you. Sixteen middle-aged men are decked out in a mixture of nylon jogging anoraks, fluffy white socks, digital watches and faded jeans. You'd probably guess they were a bunch of Californian dentists.
They are, in fact, the magazine reliably informs us, the New Establishment, 'the leaders of the computer, entertainment and communication industries, whose collective power has eclipsed that of Wall Street and Washington'. In his 'Editor's Letter', Graydon Carter confidently boasts that his 30 page 'Special Report' redefines 'the power center of America... as (it) has moved from its role as military-industrial giant to a new supremacy as the world's entertainment-information superpower'.
There again, bottom left, is Hollywood super-agent Mike Ovitz, chairman of the Creative Artists Agency (presumably he won't sign non-creative artists); in the middle is his buddy David Geffen (interests listed as 'Aids, Israel and other causes'); behind them is another close pal, Barry Diller, another Aids activist and chairman of the home-shopping network QVC.
In a Warner Bros. Fitness Center' T-shirt is Gerald Levin, chairman of Time Warner Inc.; in a denim shirt is Jeffrey Katzenberg. Banker Herbert A. Allen their host for this 'Sun Valley Conference of Corporate Leaders' has on his running shoes. Steven Spielberg, snapped by Annie Leibovitz a few pages on, is gazing out to sea, his white sneakers and socks by his side.
Throughout their report, the magazine is repeatedly troubled by the question: 'Is there anything that binds this group of men?' According to Walter Isaacson, Time Inc.'s media editor, the old White Anglo-Saxon Protestant hegemony was linked through shared educational (i.e. 'class') bonds and beliefs: 'What binds these guys is a sense of interlocking ventures and relationships. The Old Establishment was a club. The New Establishment is a network.'
Up to a point. Again, there is something very obvious (apart from white socks) that does bind together most of the leading members of the so-called 'New Establishment' or the Titans of Tripe, as Auberon Waugh recently called them. Only no magazine in America (especially a Conde Nast publication owned by Si Newhouse) would point it out: they are predominantly Jewish.
Whilst part of the blame for the fall of the eastern Establishment is placed on its exclusive good old-boy network and elitist Wasp mentality which excluded outsiders, a delicate question remains. Has the usurping of the white-shoe Establishment by the white-sock meritocracy anything to do with a similarly invidious and protective culture? Now that Jews govern the New Establishment (their official mouthpiece is the New York Times), does any sort of reverse form of class or racial discrimination operate against outsiders trying to get access to the entertainment highway Wasps, blacks, Brits (there is only one Brit, of any level of executive significance in all the major studios, and he is Jewish) and others not so favored?
It should first be said that there is nothing remotely surprising about all this. As Neal Gabler clearly demonstrated in his acclaimed book, An Empire of Their Own, How the Jews Invented Hollywood, the early Jewish movie pioneers such as Louis B. Mayer and Irving Thalberg (Fitzgerald's model for The Last Tycoon) who founded the studios of today came to Hollywood because they felt barred from power in the east.
Although fiercely competitive, the Hollywood Jews worked closely together to build a close-knit empire that shamelessly imitated the social hierarchy of the very East Coast society that they felt alienated and patronized them.
'If the Jews were proscribed from entering the real corridors of gentility and status in America, the movies offered an ingenious option,' wrote Gabler. 'Within the studios and on the screen, the Jews could simply create a new countryone where they would not only be admitted, but would govern as well.'
And govern they always have. That every major studio head is Jewish today is no different from 60 years ago. 'Of 85 names engaged in production,' a 1936 survey noted, '53 are Jews. And the Jewish advantage holds in prestige as well as numbers.' In a recent Premiere magazine 'Special Power Issue' ranking the 100 most powerful people in the 'Industry' the top 12 were Jewish. There were no black or British industry executives ranked.
George Steiner once famously said that to be Jewish is to be a member of a club from which you cannot resign. In Hollywood, the most obvious examples of the Jewish Club are in the side-shows, the lawyers, talent agencies and management and production offices.
Birgit Cunningham, is a glamorous Benenden-educated, 28-year-old, blue-eyed blonde. Her father, who owns one of Hitler's pianos, is German. She told me that when she worked as a personal assistant to Vic Sutton, the Jewish head of the fast-track LA commercials talent agency, Sutton, Barth & Vennari, her boss would often, if signing a deal, bluntly ask if they were Jewish. 'I was surprised,' she said. 'I mean, in England, you'd never hear someone ask "Are you Anglican?" On the other hand, he liked to boast that he had this hot young Nazi working for him. When I told him my family flew in the Luftwaffe he was ecstatic.'
As small-time professional incest it is probably no worse than, say, public schoolboys in the City (an analogy used by one senior Jewish executive to rebut the charge of Jewish favoritism in Hollywood). The 'network' manifests itself in the Jewish country clubssuch as the Hillcrest, the one Groucho Marx refused to join or tennis clubs (application forms always say 'state religion'). Hollywood Jews are not notably religious. Although the town closes down on Jewish holidays, business happily continues at pool-side barbecues, the deli at the Brentwood Country Mart, endless bar mitzvahs and $500-a-plate Jewish causes or political fund-raisers.
Feeling a bit left out of the loop, some non-Jews have been going to extreme measures to get on. Bill Stadiem, a former Harvard-educated Wall Street lawyer who is now a screenwriter in LA, told me that he recently came across an old Wasp friend in an LA restaurant who had been president of the Porcellian at Harvard the most exclusive undergraduate dining club. His friend, a would-be producer, was dressed in a black nylon track suit and had gold chains on his wrist; dangling around his neck was a chunky Star of David. Stadiem asked, 'Why the hell are you dressed like that? ' The Wasp replied, 'I'm trying to look Jewish.'
Just as in the Eighties people were known to fake being homosexual or bisexual as a way of getting on in the entertainment business (it is estimated that around 35 per cent of the film community are gay), it has long been a standing joke in L.A that the way to get on is to convert to Judaism. Simon Kelton, an Eton-and Oxford-educated screenwriter friend with whom I used to share a house, and who was short listed last year for the Samuel Goldwyn film-writing award, always stresses his Jewish 'ancestry' whenever he gets a chance in LA; something few had ever heard about before.
The extent to which this adds up to any sort of Jewish cabal behind the building of the 21st-Century Entertainment Superhighway is difficult to assess. Jews, always compulsive story-tellers and talented negotiators, are extremely compatible with the executive side of the movie business. They are good at it.
The crucial fact that Vanity Fair seems to have blindly swerved past in its 'challenge of redefining the power center of America' is that the whole point of the 'Establishment', as Henry Fairlie noted when coining the phrase in The Spectator back in 1955, is that its power is exercised socially. That the socially maladroit and culturally nihilist white-sock meritocracy is now anointed the Power Elite by a 'smart' glossy magazine only serves to confirm how the divide between social and professional lives in the United States has become blurred to the point of irrelevance.
The important thing about New Establishment power in America is that it is exercised corporately. What is wholly new about today's generation of moguls is that they have made a radical social departure from their Jewish forebears. The likes of Mayer, Cohen, Selznick and Thalberg headed west at a time when the entertainment business was regarded as disreputable, and they went to extreme lengths in their quest for social respectability.
Louis Mayer comically attempted to live like a 19th-century aristocrat, forcing his daughter to have riding lessons every day. He himself joined the Griffith Park Riding Academy and even very nearly converted to Catholicism.
The movie Jews joined the Hollywood Polo and Riding Club in droves; they paid their expensive dues at the West Hills Hunt Club with its own pack of Irish foxhounds, whose (mostly Jewish) members still gallop every Saturday in season around the hills around Los Angeles in sunglasses and full British hunting gear. The idea of 'New Establishment' players like David Geffen (who refuses to wear a suit), Mike Ovitz or Steven Spielberg dressing up in a tail-coat to go fox-hunting is ludicrous. Now that they are the Power Elite, they view the creaky East Coast Wasp institutions and such reserves as the LA Country Club (which still proudly excludes Jews and showbiz types') as anachronistic jokes. Whilst Louis Mayer would have been trying everything to get a photograph of himself shaking hands with Prince Charles during his three-day visit (or escape) to LA, today's breed of super-mogul couldn't care less.
The rise of the white-sock mediocracy, of course, is only another example of how driven Jews have always dealt with exclusion. Barred from one form of Establishment, they have ended up helping to create their own.
When Marlon Brando held a news conference at the Museum of Tolerance (MOT, a state-funded Holocaust museum operated by Orthodox rabbis) to apologize for his comments about Jews on the Larry King Show, William Cash leaped on stage and started babbling about his desire to repent for his article. Cash was led away by security guards. Later, Cash was told by Jack Valenti and the honchos at the MOT that he was forgiven.
New World Order (1940)
1940: Germany is in total control of the European war situation. The French have signed an armistice with Germany and are out of the war. The British army has been forced to evacuate the continent at Dunkirk (Hitler had graciously allowed them to escape). The Soviets and Americans are not in the war, and Hitler has a very generous peace offer on the table for Britain.
As they had during their losing days of World War I, British politicians reach out to international Jewry for help in inducing America into the war. During that war, Britain's “Balfour Declaration” promised to open Palestine to the Jews (after the defeat and busting-up of the Ottoman Turkish Empire) as a payoff for bringing about U.S. entry. And after Woodrow Wilson's 1916 re-election, the Zionists delivered on their end of the deal.
Now, in 1940, 14 months before the deliberate provocation which led to Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, comes what we might call “The Greenwood Declaration” -- issued by British War Cabinet member Lord Arthur Greenwood through a British-Jewish intermediary, and then on to Jewish World Congress Director Dr. Stephen S Wise of New York, and duly hyped by Sulzberger's Jew York Slimes -- is offering Jews THE WORLD!
War Cabinet member Lord Arthur Greenwood (left) delivered his promise of a “New World Order” to British Zionist Maurice Perlzweig (centre) of the World Jewish Congress; who in turn handed it to Stephen S Wise of the American branch of the World Jewish Congress (right).
According to the 2011 census, 263,346 people answered "Jewish" to the voluntary question on religion, compared with 259,927 in the previous count of 2001. This equates to just 0.43% of the population of the United Kingdom.
Tony Blair served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007. Bliar was born in Edinburgh, Scotland on 6 May 1953, the second son of Leo and Hazel Blair (née Corscadden). Leo Blair, the illegitimate son (Bastard) of two English actors, had been adopted (not a descendent of Clan Blair) as a baby by Glasgow shipyard worker James Blair and his wife, Mary.
Hazel Corscadden was the daughter of George Corscadden, a butcher and Orangeman who moved to Glasgow in 1916 but returned to (and later died in) Ballyshannon in 1923, where his wife, Sarah Margaret (née Lipsett), gave birth to Blair's mother, Hazel, above her family's grocery shop. The Lipsett family in Donegal originated with a German Jewish immigrant to Ireland before the 18th century.
Gordon Brown served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 to 2010. He was the sixth post-war Prime Minister, of a total of 13, to assume the role without having won a general election.
Brown organised the sale of UK gold reserves from 1999 to 2002. In March 2009, Brown was named World Statesman of the Year by the Appeal of Conscience Foundation, the award was presented by Rabbi Arthur Schneier. In 2010 resigned as leader of the Labour Party with immediate effect recommending that she invite the Leader of the Opposition, David Cameron, to form a government.
Other Jewish Labour Politicans:
- Jack Straw — Reportedly 1/8th Jewish, his maternal grandfather's mother came from an Eastern European Jewish family. In 1966, he was elected as chairman of Leeds University Union Labour Society by a majority consisting largely of members of the Leeds University Union Communist Society. Led by Straw, Labour Society disaffiliated itself from the Labour Party and changed its name to the Leeds University Union Socialist Society.
- Peter Mandleson — Under Tony Blair appointed Minister without Portfolio in the Cabinet Office 1997 – 1998. Mandleson's Father's family were Jewish; his grandfather founded Harrow United Synagogue. His father (known as Tony) was the advertising manager of The Jewish Chronicle. Mandelsons father Lord Morrison served as Leader of the Opposition for the Labour Party in 1955 and an enthusiastic leader of a major domestic project, the Festival of Britain.
- Ed and David Miliban — (brothers) - Ed Miliband was Leader of the Labour Party and Leader of the Opposition between 2010 and 2015, resigning after Labour's defeat at the 2015 general election. Alongside his brother, Foreign Secretary David Miliband, he served in the Cabinet from 2007 to 2010 under Prime Minister Gordon Brown. Miliband is the younger son of immigrant parents. His mother, Marion Kozak, a human rights campaigner and early CND member, is a Polish Jew His father, Ralph Miliband, was a Belgian-born Polish Jewish Marxist academic whose father fled with him to England during the Second World War.
- Margaret Hodge — was appointed Junior Minister for Disabled People in 1998 and promoted to Minister for Universities in 2001, subsequently becoming the first Children's Minister in 2003, joining the Privy Council. In 2005, Hodge became Minister of State in the Department for Work and Pensions with primary responsibility for employment. Hodge served as Minister of State for Culture and Tourism from 2007 to 2008 and 2009. Hodge was born in Cairo, Egypt, to Jewish refugee parents Hans Oppenheimer (1908–1985), and his wife Lisbeth (née Hollitscher).
- Harry Cohen — was a member of the House of Commons Defence Select Committee between 1997–2001, and has been a member of the Work and Pensions Select Committee since 2005. Cohen was Chairman of the All-Party Parliamentary Group for Tibet and Secretary of the All-Party Parliamentary Race and Community Group and was a member of the Socialist Campaign Group, a signatory to Jews for Justice for Palestinians, and counts Karl Marx, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela and the Dalai Lama as political influences.
- Gillian Merron — is a life peer serving as Chief Executive of the Board of Deputies of British Jews since 2014. Merron held several ministerial offices in the Blair and Brown governments. Since February 2013, she has served as a Vice-President of the Jewish Leadership Council and served as external affairs officer on the board of Liberal Judaism from July 2012 to May 2014. In December 2020, it was announced Merron would be conferred a life peerage after a nomination by Labour Party leader Keir Starmer.
- Barbara Roche — is a British Labour politician and Member of Parliament. During her time in Government, she held several ministerial offices; Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department of Trade and Industry, 1997–1998; Financial Secretary to the Treasury, 1999; Minister of State for Asylum and Immigration, Home Office, 1999–2001; Cabinet Office, 2001–2002; Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, 2002–2003. Roche has been linked to the Blair government's "mass immigration" policy. Roche was educated at the Jews Free School, Camden Town. Roche is currently Chair of Praxis Charity for Migrants. She became chair of the Migration Museum Project and six other organisations in the migration field.
- Ruth Smeeth — is a former British Labour Party politician. Smeeth describes herself as 'culturally Jewish'. From 2010 to 2015, she was a deputy director of anti-racist organisation, Hope not Hate. She has also been employed by the Community Security Trust and has worked for the Board of Deputies of British Jews. In November 2005 she became director of public affairs and campaigns at the Britain Israel Communications and Research Centre (BICOM). Her maternal family is Jewish, and arrived in London during the 1890s, having escaped Russian pogroms.
- Alex Sobel — is a Fabian British Labour and Co-operative politician who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Leeds North West since the 2017 general election. In July 2019, Sobel became Parliamentary Private Secretary to the shadow foreign secretary Emily Thornberry. Sobels parents, Leopold and Ruth Sobel, migrated from Israel in 1971.
- Luciana Berger — was initially a member of Labour Co-op, in 2019 she left and co-founded The Independent Group, later Change UK, before joining the Liberal Democrats. A former member of the Official Opposition frontbench, she served under Labour Leader Jeremy Corbyn as Shadow Minister for Mental Health from 2015 to 2016. Berger is a great-niece of trade union official and Labour MP Manny Shinwell, who rose to be a Minister in the Ramsay MacDonald government and in the Attlee government, as Secretary of State for War in the latter. He was of Polish Jewish extraction, and was the last MP to throw a punch in parliament, after taking exception to a Conservative MP suggesting that he "get back to Poland".
- Greville Janner — was barrister and writer. Janner became a Leicester Labour MP in the 1970 general election as a last-minute candidate, succeeding his father. He was an MP until 1997, and then elevated to the House of Lords. Never a frontbencher, Janner was particularly known for his work on secretive Select Committees; he chaired the Select Committee on Employment for a time. Janner associated with a number of Jewish organisations including the Board of Deputies of British Jews, of which he was chairman from 1978 to 1984. Janner was born in Cardiff, Wales, to Lithuanian Jewish (Litvak) parents.
- Robert Maxwell — was a British media proprietor, former member of Parliament (MP), suspected spy (MOSSAD), and fraudster. Originally from Czechoslovakia, Maxwell built an extensive publishing empire. After his death, huge discrepancies in his companies' finances were revealed, including his fraudulent misappropriation of the Mirror Group pension fund. Maxwell was born into a Yiddish-speaking Orthodox Jewish family in the small town of Slatinské Doly, in the region of Carpathian Ruthenia, Czechoslovakia.
Borris Johnson served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2019 to 2022. He was born in the Upper East Side of Manhattan, New York City, to 23-year-old Stanley Johnson, then studying economics at Columbia University, and 22-year-old Charlotte Fawcett (New School?), an artist from a family of liberal intellectuals. Borris's father Stanley gained employment with the World Bank before taking a job with a policy panel on population control, and then secured employment at the European Commission.
David Cameron served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016. Cameron is a descendent of banker Emile Levita, who came to Britain as a German immigrant in the 1850s. Emile Levita was himself a descendent of Elijah Levita, who lived from 1469-1549. During the last years of his life Elijah Levita produced, among other works, two major books: the 1541 Translator’s book, the first dictionary of the Targums or Aramaic commentaries on the Hebrew Bible.
His lexicon of 1542 explained much of the Mishnaic Hebrew language and was a supplement to two important earlier dictionaries. Elijah Levita also wrote what is thought to be the first-ever Yiddish novel — called the Bove-bukh (The Book of Bove) written in 1507 and printed in 1541. While studying the Cameron family tree in 2009, Dr Yaakov Wise — a University of Manchester historian who specializes in Jewish history — found that David Cameron is descended from a highly distinguished Jewish family line. In 2010 Cameron spoke to the Movement for Reform Judaism, describing his learning of his Jewish ancestry as the “highlight” of his year.
Succeeded by David Cameron, the previous leader of the Conservative party, Michael Howard, is also Jewish, as was then current leader of the UK Labour Party, Ed Miliband. Not bad going for a group that constitutes less than 0.5% of Britain’s population.
Margaret Thatcher served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was very close to Britain's late Chief Rabbi, Immanuel Jakobovits (“Thatcher's Rabbi”) from whom she was said to seek “spiritual reinforcement”.
Other Jewish Conservative Politicans:
- Dominic Rennie Raab — is a British politician serving as Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Secretary of State for Justice and Lord Chancellor since 2021. Raab served as Brexit Secretary in 2018 and First Secretary of State and Foreign Secretary from 2019 to 2021. His father, who was Jewish, came to Britain from Czechoslovakia in 1938 aged six, following the Munich Agreement.
- George Osborne — served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 2010 to 2016 and as First Secretary of State from 2015 to 2016 in the Cameron government. Osbournes mother is Felicity Alexandra Loxton-Peacock, the daughter of Hungarian-born Jewish artist Clarisse Loxton-Peacock (née Fehér).
- Zac Goldsmith — is serving as Minister of State for Pacific and the Environment. A member of the Conservative Party, he was its candidate at the 2016 London mayoral election and was Member of Parliament (MP) for Richmond Park from 2010 to 2016 and 2017 to 2019. Goldsmith is the middle child of James Goldsmith, a member of the Goldsmith family of German Jewish and French descent, and his third wife, the Anglo-Irish aristocrat, Lady Annabel Vane-Tempest-Stewart. Goldsmith has stated "I was brought up by my father to identify very strongly as Jewish."
- Grant Shapps — is a British politician who has served as Secretary of State for Transport since 2019. Shapps also has Cabinet responsibility for the Northern Powerhouse. Following the 2010 general election, he was appointed Minister of State for Housing and Local Government and was sworn of the Privy Council. He served in Prime Minister David Cameron’s Cabinet as Chairman of the Conservative Party from 2012 to 2015, also holding the title of Minister without Portfolio in the Cabinet Office. Shapps was born in Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire, the son of Beryl and Tony Shapps. His family is Jewish.
- Julian Lewis — served as the Member of Parliament (MP), representing New Forest East since 1997. Lewis has served as Chair of the Intelligence and Security Committee since 2020, succeeding Dominic Grieve. Lewis served as Chair of the Defence Select Committee from 2015 to 2019. He actively pursues the retention and renewal of the British strategic nuclear deterrent, the UK Trident programme – confirmed in 2016 – and campaigns for Defence expenditure to be restored to 3% of GDP. Lewis was born in Swansea, into a Jewish family and son of a tailor and designer.
- Lucy Frazer — served as Financial Secretary to the Treasury since 2021. She previously served as Solicitor General for England and Wales and as Minister of State for Prisons. After her maiden speech, in which she jokingly referred to Oliver Cromwell's sale of Scots into colonial slavery as "an answer to the West Lothian question – but not one, of course, that I would recommend", she apologised were any offence to have been caused by such comment. Frazer is descended from Jewish immigrants among whom was her grandfather Hyman Frazer, headmaster of Gateway Grammar School in Leicester.
- Michael Ellis — served as Paymaster General since 2021. He previously served as Solicitor General for England and Wales from 2019 to 2021. Ellis served in the May Government as Deputy Leader of the House of Commons from 2016 to 2018. When Boris Johnson became Prime Minister in July 2019, he was appointed Solicitor General and, in September 2019, he was appointed to the Privy Council. Ellis was born in Northampton on 1967 to a British Jewish family.
- Robert Halfon — served as the Member of Parliament (MP). Halfon was formerly a professional researcher for Conservative MPs, including as Chief of Staff to Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer Oliver Letwin. He was also the political director of Conservative Friends of Israel. Halfon attended Prime Minister David Cameron's Cabinet from May 2015 and July 2016 as Minister without portfolio and Deputy Chairman of the Conservative Party. He served in Prime Minister Theresa May's government as Minister of State for Skills at the Department for Education from July 2016 to June 2017.
- Michael Howard — served as Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition from November 2003 to December 2005. He previously held cabinet positions in the governments of Margaret Thatcher and John Major, including Secretary of State for Employment, Secretary of State for the Environment and Home Secretary. Howard was born Michael Hecht in Gorseinon, Swansea. He is the son of Bernat Hecht, who was born in Romania and came to Britain in 1939. His mother, Hilda (Kershion), lived in Wales. Both of Howard's parents were from Jewish families.
- Michael Fabricant — was the vice-chairman of the Conservative Party for parliamentary campaigning, responsible for Conservative headquarters strategy on marginal seats at the 2015 general election, as well as by-elections, until he was sacked as vice-chairman of the Conservative Party after he tweeted "about time" with regard to Maria Miller's resignation as cabinet minister. Fabricant was born in Brighton on 12 June 1950, into a British Jewish family, to Helena (née Freed; 1911–2004) and Rabbi Isaac Fabricant (1906–1989), rabbi of the Brighton and Hove Synagogue.
- Richard Harrington — was the Minister for Business and Industry from June 2017 to March 2019. Until March 2010, he was chairman of the Executive Board of the Conservative Friends of Israel, which, during his tenure, had quadrupled in size financially. He was appointed a treasurer of the Conservative Party in 2008, the role in which he launched the Number 10 Club with Sir John Major. Harrington was born in Leeds to a British Jewish family.
- Andrew Percy — was elected Member of Parliament for Brigg and Goole in 2010 and is an active member of many groups in Parliament. Percy has been part of a number of delegations of the Conservative Friends of Israel group, including during the Operation Defensive Shield conflict when he visited for an Israeli military briefing on the Iron Dome defence system. He defended Israel's actions in the conflict saying "Israel acts as we would", in relation to the provocation faced from Hamas. Percy converted to Judaism in March 2017, having been baptised into the Church of England. He has identified with the Jewish community since primary school.
- Leon Brittan — served as a European Commissioner from 1989 to 1999. As a member of Parliament from 1974 to 1988, he served several ministerial roles in Margaret Thatcher's government, including Home Secretary from 1983 to 1985. Leon Brittan was born in London, the son of Rebecca (née Lipetz) and Joseph Brittan, a doctor. His parents were Lithuanian Jews who had migrated to Britain before the Second World War.
- Nigel Lawson — served in the cabinet of Margaret Thatcher from 1981 to 1989. appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in June 1983, and served until his resignation in October 1989. In both Cabinet posts, Lawson was a key proponent of Thatcher's policies of privatisation of several key industries. Lawson was born on 11 March 1932 to a non-orthodox Jewish family living in Hampstead, London.
- Malcolm Rifkind — served in various roles as a Cabinet minister under Prime Ministers Margaret Thatcher and John Major, including Secretary of State for Scotland (1986–1990), Defence Secretary (1992–1995), and Foreign Secretary (1995–1997). Rifkind was born in Edinburgh to a Jewish family that emigrated to Britain in the 1890s from Lithuania; among his cousins were Leon and Samuel Brittan.
- Edwina Currie is a British writer, broadcaster and former politician, serving as Conservative Party Member of Parliament for South Derbyshire from 1983 until 1997. She was a Junior Health Minister for two years, resigning in 1988 during the salmonella-in-eggs controversy. Currie was born in south Liverpool to an Orthodox Jewish family, who "disowned her when she married a non-Jewish accountant".
- Oliver Letwin — who was a member of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's Policy Unit from 1983 to 1986. Appointed member of his Shadow Cabinet as Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury by William Hague in September 2000. He had previously been an official Opposition spokesman on Constitutional Affairs, Scotland and Wales from 1998, and was promoted to Shadow Financial Secretary to the Treasury in 1999. Letwin is the son of William Letwin, emeritus professor at the London School of Economics, and the conservative academic Shirley Robin Letwin. His parents were "Jewish-American intellectuals from Chicago whose parents had fled persecution in Kyiv."
- David Sumberg — is a former Member of the European Parliament for the North West England region for the Conservative Party. He was first elected to the European Parliament in 1999 and stood down in 2009. As an MP he acted as the Parliamentary Private Secretary for the Attorney General, Sir Patrick Mayhew. He seconded the Loyal Humble Address of Ian Gow MP in November 1989; a privilege that was traditionally afforded only once to an MP.
- Anthony David Steen — is a former British Conservative Party politician and barrister. He was a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1974 to 2010, and the Chairman of the Human Trafficking Foundation. Steen was born in July 1939 to Stephen Nicholas Steen (formerly Stein), one time Chairman and President of Smith & Nephew, and Jacqueline Annette, daughter of William (formerly Wolko or Woolf) Slavouski, a Russian fur and skin trader.
- Ivan Lawrence — was a member of the Conservative Monday Club in 1973 when in the Autumn of that year he had contributed an article to Monday News on the subject of "The Problem of State Subsidised Strikers". was Chairman of the Home Affairs Select Committee from 1992 to 1997 and was Chairman of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association (UK Branch) from 1995 to 1997. He was a member of the Foreign Affairs Select Committee from 1982 to 1992. He was chairman of the Conservative Friends of Israel, a deputy for the Board of Deputies of British Jews for 40 years, and was a trustee of the Holocaust Educational Trust.
- John Bercow — was Speaker of the House of Commons from 2009 to 2019. He was a councillor in the London Borough of Lambeth from 1986 to 1990. Promoted to the Shadow Cabinet in 2001, he held posts under Iain Duncan Smith and Michael Howard. Bercow's father was born to a Jewish family and his mother converted to Judaism. His paternal grandparents were Jews who arrived in Britain from Romania in the early 20th century.
- Cyril Patnick was a businessman and Conservative Party politician. During his time as an MP he was a Lord Commissioner of Her Majesty's Treasury and deputy Chairman of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link Select committee. He was against sanctions on the apartheid regime in South Africa, voted to reintroduce the death penalty. He was the vice-president of Sheffield's Kingfield Synagogue, life president of Sheffield Jewish Representative Council, and a former national vice-chairman of the British Maccabi sports and youth organisation. Patnick was also the chairman of trustees of The Trust for Research into Freemasonry, a charity established to support the Centre for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism at the University of Sheffield.
- Lee Scott — is a British Conservative Party politician. He was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Ilford North from 2005 until his defeat at the 2015 general election. Scott is an officer of the Conservative Friends of Israel. From May 2018 to June 2019, Scott was Special Adviser to the Secretary of State for Housing, Communities and Local Government, James Brokenshire. Scott was born in the East End of London to a British Jewish family.